A B C D E F G H I J K L M
2231 terms
320 pictures .... 231 fact pages .... 1033 site links .... 2287 hyperlinks
Last updated 01-04.06

Starting in the month of January 2007 I will be be manually reloading almost 4000 images. This will take a few months. During this process many of the links back to the site will be broken and will not be repaired until I finish the up loading. Sorry for the inconvenience.

Paul

 

A

a
latin prefix, meaning not, negative, without, lacking
ABA
abscisic acid
abaxial
1. the surface of a leaf, petal, etc. facing away from the stem or axis of the plant, 2. dorsal, 3. (opp adaxial)
aberrant
1. atypical or different from the norm, 2. can be used to describe a plant of species that is different from the group in which it is placed
abiotic
A nonliving factor of an ecosystem that has an effect on the living members of the ecosystem (opposite biotic). Things such as weather, heat, wind, etc.
ablastous
without germ or bud
abortion
an organ or plant structure fails to develop
abortive
1. only partially or not fully developed such as incomplete seed or frost nipped bud, 2. rudimentary
abrupt
truncated
abruptly pinnate
1. a pinnate leaf that ends without an odd leaflet or tendril, it ends in matched pairs, 2. evenly pinnate
abscisic acid
1. growth-inhibiting hormone of plants, 2. plays an important role in dormancy, 3. ABA
abscise
abscission
abscission
1. when seeds, fruit or leaves separate from the plant as an abscission zone is formed, 2. in the fall of the year abscission zones form and the leaves fall from the plants (temperate climates)
acantha
refers to a spine, thorn or prickle
acanthocarpa
1. bearing spiny fruit, 2. echinocarpa
acanthodes
1. from the greek word acantha meaning thorn 2. spiny, 3. Example: Ferocactus acanthodes is covered with many stiff spines.
acarpous
a plant that is sterile
acaulescent
1. without a stem or stemless, 2. Example: Aloe vera (Aloe vera), Living Rock (Pleiospilos bolusii), Baby Toes (Fenestraria rhopalophylla)
accessory bud
an extra bud in a leaf axil
accrescent
continuing to increase in size after maturity or flowering
accumbent
a pair of cotyledons curving back towards the hypocotyl so that their edges are turned towards the hypocotyl
accumbent cotyledons
accumbent
aceae
a latin suffix meaning the plants of nature
acephalous
headless or with much reduced heads
acerba
sour
aceriform
1. in the shape of a Maple leaf, 2. Example: Pale Indian Plantain (Arnoglossum atriplicifolium)
acervate
growing in heaps or compact clusters
acerose
1. needle-shaped as in the leaves of Pine and Spruce, 2. acicular, 3. Examples: Lace Bark Pine (Pinus bungeana), Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana), Norway Spruce (Picea abies)
achene
1. indehiscent dry fruit, one seeded, seed free from seed coat, 2. pericarp free from seed coat, 3. examples: buttercup, buckwheat, Goat's-beard (Tragopogon pratensis), Beggers Tick (Bidens frondosa), Curly Dock (Rumex crispus)
achenodium
schizocarp
achilary
lacking a lip
achlamydeous
1. flowers that lack sepals and petals, 2 Examples of achlamydeous plants: Willows,
achlorophyllous
without chlorophyll
achma
anvil shaped
acicula
small needle-like or bristle-like structure
acicular
1. needle-shaped, 2. acerose, 3. Examples: Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris)
aciculate
marked with pin pricks or needle scratches
acid
1. a substance with hydrogen ions available for chemical activity, 2. a solution with a ph reading of more than 0 and less than 7, 3. sour soils
acidophilous
1. a plant which prefers acid soil, 2. acid loving
acid soil
soil with a ph lower than 7.0
acidic
being acid
acidify
to lower the ph of the soil or growing media
acies
the edge of some angled stems
aciform
acicular
acinaceous
consisting of or full of kernels
acinacifolious
having scimitar-shaped leaves
acinaciform
1. shaped like a scimitar, 2. a leaf with one edge convex and thin, the other straighter and thick
acinarious
covered with little round, stalked, grape-like sacs
aciniform
1. in the form of grapes, or growing in grape-like structures, 2. acinose
acinose
resembling a bunch of grapes
acma
anvil shaped
acorn
1. the dry fruit of an Oak tree, 2. in botanical terms a nut, 2. Examples:Red Oak (Quercus rubra ), Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa)
acranthous
having the inflorescence borne on the tip of the main axis
acrid
having a sharp, bitter or biting taste
actinomorphic
1. a regular flower, 2. flowers that can be bisected by more than one plane, 2. flowers which are radial symmetrical, 3. Examples: Lipstick Alpine Strawberry(Fragaria), Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)
acula
1. stemless, acaulescent
acuminate
1. apex is tapering to a point with slightly concaved sides, 2. tapering to a fine point, 3. Examples: Japanese Lilac (Syringia reticulata), Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var tomemtosa)
acute
1. apex is tapering to a point with slightly convex sides, 2. sharply pointed, 3. Examples: Giant Purple Hyssop (Agastache scrophulariaefolia)
acutifolia
1. pointed leaves, 2. Example: Calamagrostis Karl Forester (Calamagrostis acutifolia)
ad
prefix meaning to or toward
adaxial
1. the side toward the axis, 2. ventral, 3. upside of an organ such as a leaf, 4. opp. abaxial
adnate
growing together or attaches
adnation
fusion of unlike parts
adnate stipules
stipules which adhere to the sides of the petiole
adnexed
annexed or touching but not attached
adobe soils
1. dense clay-like, alkaline soil, 2. gumbo
adpressed
1.lying close to another organ, but not fused to it , 2. Example: the scale-like leaves of, Arborvitae The Giant (Thuja plicata), Creeping Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster adpressus)
adult phase
the stage of plants capable of producing flowers and fruit
adventicius
latin for coming from the outside, as in adventitious roots
adventitious
occurring in unusual or unexpected locations, such as buds on the leaves, prop roots of corn, prop roots of Mangrove Trees, etc.
adventitious plantlets
plantlets which develops along the margins of leaves.
adventitious roots
1. roots developing from unusual places, 2. roots developing from a rhizome, 3 Examples:Monstrose Philodendron (Monstera deliciosa)
adventitious shoots
1. a shoot developing from an unusual place, such as a sucker, 2. Examples of plants with suckers or a suckering habit: Gray Twig Dogwood (Cornus racemosa), Pleomele (Pleomele reflexa)
aenea(-us,-um)
1. of a bronze color, Example: Carex aenea
aerial
occurring above ground or water
aerial roots
1. roots developing above ground level, 2 adventitious roots, 3 pneumatophores ,4. knees
aeruginosa (-us,-um)
1. having deep green with blue color, 2: Example: Euphorbia aeruginosa var minor has a deep green stem with blue coloration
afoliate
without leaves
after ripening
physiological conditions that occur within a seed so that germination can take place (seed dormancy)
agglomerate
1. crowded in a dense cluster, 2. similar to glomerate, aggregate
aggregate
1. densely clustered, 2. glomerate
aggregate fruit
1. a fruit formed from the aggregation of many ripened ovaries that originate from a single flower, 2. a fruit formed from a flower with many ovaries such as blackberry, strawberry, raspberry, etc.
AHS
American Horticultural Society
aianthous
1. continuously in bloom or flower, 2. semperflorous
air layering
1. A method of plant propagation where a cut is made in the stem of the plant, wrapped with sphagnum moss in a water proof material, and the plant will form roots at this point., 2. a form of layering
akene
achene
alar
1. wing-shaped, 2. wing-like
alate
1. having wings or wing-like appendages, 2. winged
alatus (-a,-um)
1. wings, 2. Examples: Winged Burning Bush(Euonymus alata), Black-eyed Susan Vine (2) (Thunbergia alata)
alba
1. having a white color, 2. Example: White Bleeding Heart (Dicentra spectablils alba), Cream Gentian (Gentiana alba), White Wild Indigo (Baptisia alba var macrophylla )
albi-flora
1. white flowers, 2. Example: Variegated Inch Plant (Tradescantia albiflora albo-vittata)
albo
in a compound word meaning white
albo-aurea
1. white and gold(aurea), 2. Example: Gold-striped Hakone Grass (Hakonechloa macra Albo-aurea)
albo-maculata
1. spotted (maculata) in white
albo-marginate
1. white edged or margin, 2. Example:Silver Crown Hosta (Hosta undulata albo-marginata)
albo-striata
1. striped or striated in white
albo-vittata
1. with white stipes lengthwise (vittata), 2. Example: Variegated Inch Plant (Tradescantia albiflora albo-vittata)
algae
A very diverse group of plant-like (but not plants) organisms that are placed in the Protista Kingdom. They have no true roots, stems or leaves.
alkaline
1. substances that have a ph reading of over 7.0
alkaline soils
1. soils with a ph of over 7.0, 2. sweet soil
alien
1. an exotic plant, 2. a plant primarily of European or Asian origin that was accidentally or intentionally introduced into an area
alata
tall
alternate
1. branches or leaves attached to the side of the stem at different heights, on different sides, 2. alternate and are not straight across or opposite, 2. Example: Tricolor Beech (Fagus sylvatica Tricolor)
alternation of generation
alternating between the haploid gametophytes stage and the diploid sporophyte stage of the life cycle of a sexually reproducing organism
albomarginata
1. Having white veins, 2. Example: Silver Crown Hosta (Hosta undulata albo-marginata)
alburnum
1. sapwood, 2. most recently formed wood
alpina (alpinus, alpinum)
1. from an alpine area, 2. a dwarf plant, 2. Example: Alpine Columbine (Aquilegia alpina), Greenmound Alpine Current (Ribes alpinium)
alpine
above the tree line in mountainous areas
alpine house
a well ventilated cool greenhouse where the winter temperatures may go as low as 20 degrees F
apine lawn
an area planted to resemble a mountainous meadow
alpine plant
any plant that is normally found growing on mountains usually above the tree line
amaranth
1. a deep reddish purple to dark or grayish, purplish red, 2. any member of the genus Amaranthus; Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Joesph's Coat (Amaranthus tricolor)
Amaryllis
A group of bulbous plants belonging to the Amarlyillidaceae family. Named after Amaryllis a beautiful shepherdess of classical poetry.
amblyanthus (amblyanthum, amblyantha)
a blunt flower
ament
1. many reduced, unisexual flowers borne close together on a common axis, with subtending scales, 2. catkin
amethystina
1. violet
amoena
pleasant, delightful
amphanthium
a dilated receptacle found in some inflorescences
amplectant
amplexicaul
amplexicaul
1. a leaf clasping the stem, 2 Examples: Common Sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus ), Spiny-Leaved Sow Thistle (Sonchus asper)
ampliate
expanded or enlarge
ampulla
a bladder or swelling
ampullaceous
swelling out like a bottle or a bladder
ananthous
lacking stamens
anathous
without or lacking flowers
anatrose
1. directed forward or upward, 2. retrose (opp)
androecium
1. male part of the flower, 2. collectively all the stamens
anemphilous
wind pollinated
greek prefix meaning vessel
angiosperm
1. a class of plants that form their seed enclose in an ovary, 2. a class of plants that flower and the seeds are enclosed in a fruit, 3. in general terms a flowering plant
angular
having several outward or upward facing angles on the margin.
angustifolia
1. narrow leaves, 2. Examples Spreading Zinnia Star Mix (Zinnia angustifolia), Russian Olive (Eleagnus angustifolia ), to search for more uses of angustifolia
annual
1. plants that germinates, grows, flowers and sets seed in one growing season and than dies, 2. a plant that completes it's life cycle in one growing season
annual ring
1. one of the pattern of concentric circles formed during each growing season, 2. consists of an inner spring wood ring and an outer summerwood ring, 3. can be counted to determine the age of the plant
annular
ring like
annulus
a membranous ring around the stipe of a mushroom
annulus
a specialized ring of cells around the sporangia of a fern, aids in spore dispersal by a spring like action
anthecology
1. the study of the relationship between plants and pollinators, 2. interrelationship of flowers and flowering plants with their environments.
anther
part of the stamen that produces the pollen, usually located on the top of the filament
anther sac
pollen containing sac of the anther
anthesis
the period of flowering
anthesmotaxis
arrangement and organization of the various parts of a flower
anthine
in reference to flowers
anthium
a flower or a portion of a flower
Anthocerotophyta
A plant division consisting of nonvascular plants commonly called Hornworts. There are about 100 species of these distributed throughout the world.
anthocyanin
water soluble pigment found in plants responsible for creating pink, reds, blues, purples, etc.
anthomania
passion or fancy for flowers
anthomaniac
a person who is intensely fond of flowers
apetalous
1. flowers lacking petals , 2. Example: Chenille Plant (Acalypha hispida), Mount Airy Fothergilla (Fothergilla gardenii Mt. Airy)
apex
tip or terminal end of a branch, leaf, etc.
apical
1. referring to the apex, 2. located at the tip
apical bud
stems growing tip
apical dominance
1. plants demonstrating strong apical growth with a dominant growing point, 2. many times the only way these plants will produce later branches is by removal of the apical tip, 3. Examples: Red Edge Dracaena (Dracaena marginata), Yucca (Yucca elephantipes), Dwarf Alberta Spruce (Picea glauca conica), Ti Plant (Cordyline terminalis)
apical meristem
meristematic tissue located at the apex of a stem contributing cells to the length of the stem
apices
1. tip, 2. apex
apicula
apiculus
apiculate
1. ending abruptly in a small point, 2. Example: String of Peas ( Senecio rowleyanus)
apiculation
apiculus
apiculus
a small slender point
aphids
a sap sucking insect, comes in a variety of colors from clear to peach green to gray, soft bodied
appressed hairs
hairs that lie flat against the stem or surface of the leaves
apocarp
with carpels forming separate pistils
apocarpus
1. having the carpels separate, 2. flowers that have carpels separate and distinct
apothecium
cup-shaped fruiting body of some fungus or lichen
arachnoid
cobywebby, soft entangled hair
arbor
a light open structure formed either from plants, planted close together to be self supporting or formed from latticework frame covered with plants
arboraceous
tree-like
arboreal
1. tree-like, 2. living in trees, 3. pertaining to trees
arboreous
1. wooded, 2. woodland
arborescent
1. branching like a tree, 2. tree-like, 3. becoming a tree with the form and size, 3. Examples: Tree Jade (Crassula arborescence)
arboretum
1. a collection of trees, 2. a tree museum
arboriculture
the cultivation of trees and shrubs
arborist
a person involved in the pruning and care of trees
arching
curving gracefully
arcuate
arched, bent like a bow
areola
same as areole
areole
1. the area from which the spines of a cactus originate, 2. a raised cushion like structure characteristic of all cactus, 3. a small clearly marked area on the surface, 4. Example: Bunny Ears Cactus (Opuntia microdasys)
areolate
marked with areoles
argentatus (-a, -um)
silvered
argenteo
used in compound words to designate silver
argenteus(-a, um)
1. silvery, 2. Examples: Jade (Crassula argentea) gets silvery flecks on the leaves
argentinus (-a, -um)
from Argentina
aril
1. a fleshy seed coat, 2. extra seed coat, 3. an appendage or thickening of the seed coat
aromatic
1. having a scent, 2. Examples of plants with aromatic foliage: Purple Sage(Salvia officinalis purpurea), Lavender(Lavendula angustifolia Munstead), Lemon Scented Geranium (Pelargoium crispum), Scented Geranium Snowflake(Pelargonium capitatum Snowflake)
articulate
having nodes or joints where separation may naturally occur, such as Horse Tails (equisetum)
arvensis (arvense)
1. a weed found in cultivated fields, 2. Examples: Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense), Field Penny Crest (Thlaspi arvense)
asexual propagation
1. any of a number of forms of propagation other than seeds, 2. similar to vegetative propagation
asexual reproduction
1. a form of reproduction not involving the union of a male and female reproductive gamete, 2. reproduction other than the formation of a seed such as cuttings, division, a spore tc.
ascomycetes
1. a class of the Fungi kingdom, 2. common name is sac fungi, 3. yeast, morel, truffles, ergot of rye, Dutch Elm Disease, Chestnut Blight, etc.
astringent
foliage with a soapy or medicinal aroma because of the presence of saponium or other chemicals
atropurpurea
1. deep magenta, 2. Example: Rosey Glow Barberry (Berberis thunbergi atropupurea)
aurantica(-is,-um)
1. orange, 2. Example Purple Passion Plant (Gynura aurantica) has orange flowers
aureus (-a, -um)
1. golden, 2. Example: Golden Mach Orange (Philadelphus coronarius aureus)
auriculate
ear shaped extensions at the base of a leaf or some petals
autotrophs
1. organisms that produce their own energy by photosynthesis or chemeosynthesis , 2. autotrophs
autotroph
an autotrophic organism
awl-shaped
1. tapering from the base to a sharp point as in the leaves of an Arborvitae, Aloe, etc., 2. subulate
awn
1.a slender, stiff terminal bristle attached at its base to another structure or organ such as a leaf or grass stem
axil
1. the point of the angle between a stem or axis and a leaf, 2. the angle between the stem of the plant and the leaf growing from it
axillary
located in the axil of a leaf or a branch
axillary branch
1. a branch located in the axil of a branch, 2. Example:Rubber tree (Ficus elastica)
axillary inflorescence
1. buds found in the leaf axis, 2.Examples: Henbit (Labium amplexicaule), Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca)
axillary bud
a bud located or arising from the axil
axis
1. the portion of a plant from which lateral branches arise, 2. the main stem of the plant
azotobacter
a genus of nitrogen fixing bacteria
azureum
light blue
 
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M

 

 

B

baccate
1. like a berry, 2. having berries, 3. pulpy
bacciferous
producing berries
back bulb
1. a pseudobulb found at the back of an Orchid's flower stem, 2. a bulb which borne a flower in a previous season
bacteria
Microscopic single celled organisms vital to the decomposition of organic material in the soil, along with fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Also can be a disease causing organism.
balled
a term used to describe a rose bud that has not opened properly
banner
1. the large upper petal, 2. the standard
barbate
bearded with long stiff hairs
barbed
having short firm retrose points
barbellate
hairs with barbs down the sides
bare root
a dormant plant that is sold without soil
bark
1. outer dead layer of woody plants found on the exterior of stems and branches, 2. all tissue outside of the vascular cambium, made of cork cells
barren
infertile
basal
1. leaves or shoots arising from the base of the plant that may differ from the other leaves, 2. radical, 3. basal rosette
basal break
1. a new shoot, branch, etc. coming from the basal area of the plant, 2. used to describe a strong new cane growing from the bud union of a rose
basal lobes
1. the lower lobes adjacent to the petiole, 2.Examples: Night Shade (Solanum dulcamara)
basal plate
compressed stem axis within a bulb
basal rosette
1. a group of leaves originating from the base of a plant forming a rosette, 2. leaves are grouped from a central point in a circular shape, 3 . Examples: Broadleaf Plantain (Plantago major), Shooting Star (Dodecatheon meadia (2)), Giant Coneflower (Rudbeckia maxima)
base
the bottom of the leaf blade
basic
1. a substance with a ph reading of greater than 7. sweet
basic soil
a soil with a ph higher than 7.0
batter
the slight backward slope of a wall
beak
1. a short, stout thicken appendage of a seed or fruit, 2. Example: Common agrimonia (2) (Agrimonia gryposepala)
beard
hairs on the falls of some Iris, awn on some grasses
bearded
1. having a beard, 2. having bristly hair
berry
1. a fleshy fruit that originates from a single pistil, containing one or more seeds, 2. a fleshy indehiscent fruit originating from one pistil containing one or more seeds
bi
prefix meaning two or twice
bicolor
1. a flower with two different colored petals, 2. in Iris flowers, different colored standards and falls
bicrenate
a crenate margin of a leaf where the teeth are also crenate
bidentate
having two teeth
biennial
1. plant that lives two years, grows vegetative one year, flowers and sets seeds the next, 2. Examples of biennial plants: Teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris), Wild Carrot (Daucus carota ), Common Burdock (Arctium minus), Garlic Mustard (Allairia petiolata), Hollyhock (Alcea rosea)
bifid
1. two lobed or deeply two-cleft, 2. usually occurs from the tip of a leaf
bifurcated
1. a structure that is divided into two equal parts along some portion of its length. 2. May refer to petals that are deeply notched at their tips
bilabiate
having two lips
bilobed(bilobiate)
divided into two lobes
bio
1. prefix meaning life, 2. Examples: biology-the study of life, bio diversity-many different organisms
biodiversity
the number and variety of different plants, animals and other organisms in a given area
biology
the study of life
biotic
The living components of an ecosystem (opposite abiotic)
bipartite
1. a leaf divided almost to the base into two divisions, 2. consisting of two parts, 2. divided into two parts
bipinnate
1.twice pinnately , 2. leaflets are further divided into more leaflets, 3. Example: Japanese Shield Fern (Dryopteris erythrosora), China Doll (Radermachera sinica)
bipinnate leaflet
a leaflet that is further pinnately divided
bipinnately lobed
1. leaves that have pairs of lobes arranged oppositely from each other along the length, 2. pinnatifid
bipinnatifid
1. twice pinnately divided, 2. bipinnate
bipinnatisect
1. a pinnately compound leaf, in which each leaflet is again divided into pinnae, 2. twice pinnately cleft, 3. Example: Pine Scented Geranium (Pelargonium dentullatum Pine)
bipinnately compound
1. a pinnately compound leaf where the leaflets further divided into more leaflets
bis
a prefix bi
bisect(-a, -us, -um)
divided into two equal parts
biserrate
1. a serrated leaf with small teeth located on the larger teeth, 2. doubly serrated
bisexual
1. flowers having both sexes on the same flower, 2. flowers having the stamen and pistil on the same flower, 2. a perfect flower, 3. Examples Daylilly (2), (3), (4)
biternate
1. twice ternate, 2. the divisions are again divided into three parts
bitone
1. The petals and sepals differ in shade or intensity of the same basic color, 2. in Iris flowers two shades of the same color, falls are usually darker, 3. Tall Bearded Iris Gat Personal (Tall Bearded Iris)
bivalve
having two valves
blackish
somewhat black, dark or dusky
blade
1. expanded part of leaf or petiole, 2. flatten part of a leaf
blanda(-us, um)
1. mild, pleasing, charming, etc., 2. Example: Anemone blanda
bleeding
losing sap from plant tissue
blend
1. Two or more colors which gradually merge, 2. in Iris flowers a combination of two or more colors blending together, one of which is usually yellow
blind shoot
a non-flowering growth that must be removed to enable the plant to expend its energy on creating flowers rather than foliage
blocky structure
roughly cubical form of soil structure
bog
1. A standing body of water with no underground spring of fresh water to feed it. The water is generally cold, extremely acidic and low in oxygen., 2. An area of soft, naturally waterlogged ground. 3. Any of certain other wetland areas, such as a fen, having a peat substrate. (peat bog)
bole
stem of a tree
bolting
premature flowering
bonsai
a method of dwarfing trees and shrubs developed by Japanese
boreal
referring to the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere
botanical name
the scientific name of the plant including the genus and species
botany
the science of studing plants
bract
1. a leaf that has been reduced or modified, associated with but not part of the flower or inflorescence, 2. Example: Origanum Kent Beauty(Origanum rotundifolium)
bracteal
having the form or position of a bract
bracteate
1. having bracts, 2. provided with bracts
bracted
bracteate
bracteole
1. a very small or diminutive bract on the axis of a flower, 2. small bracts within an inflorescence
bractlet
bracteole
bracket fungi
shelf fungi
braided stem
1. the process of braiding stems together, commonly done to Ficus, 2. Examples Long Leaf Fig (Ficus binnendilkii)
bramble
coarse prickly shrub
bristle
1. a short stiff coarse hair, 2. Example: EasterCactus (Rhipsalidosis gaertneri )
bristle tipped
1. the tips of lobes, etc are pointed, 2. Example: Red Oak(Quercus rubra)
bristly
1. having short stiff hairs or bristles, 2. Example: Piggy Back Plant (Tolmiea menziesii ), Compass Plant (2) (Silphinum laciniatum )
broadcast ( ing)
A method of sowing seeds, spreading fertilizer, etc., by casting (throwing) the material in a random pattern, either by hand or using a broadcast spreader.
broadleaf
plants with relatively broad rather than needle-like or scale-like leaves
broadleaf evergreen
a woody plant with broad, flat leaves that remain green and functional throughout the year(evergreen), 2. opposite (deciduous), 3. Examples: Euonymus Canadale (Euonymus fortunei "Canadale"), Boxwood (Buxus)
bronzing
1. a metallic bronze or coppery color, 2. occurs in specific plants (many conifers) during the winter, 3. Example:Siberian Cypress (Microbiota decussata), Rheingold Arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis Rheingold)
Bryophyta
A plant division consisting of nonvascular plants commonly called Mosses. There are about 1500 species of these distributed throughout the world. This division is divided into three classes commonly called peat mosses, true mosses and rock mosses.
Bryophytes
Members of the plant kingdom consisting of nonvascular plants in the Hepaticophyta (Liverworts), Anthocerotophyta (Hornworts) and Bryophyta (Mosses) plant divisions.
bud
an undeveloped leaf shoot or flower
bud scales
overlapping protective tissue surrounding the bud
bud union
the swelling on the bottom of a plant stem where the graft is joined with the root stock
bulb
1. an underground food and water storage organ, 2. underground stem surrounded by modified leaves (scales), 3. a short flattened stem having fleshy storage leaves, 4. typical bulbs would be onion, tulips, daffodils, etc.
bulbil
1. a small immature bulb attached to a parent bulb, 2. a small bulb in the leaf axil
bublet
bulbil
bulbous
a plant that forms a bulb
bulb pan
a bulb pot
bulb pot
a shallow pot in which the height is 1/2 the width
bundle scars
same as vascular bundle scars
bur
a rough or prickly, hooked or barbed fruit (barbed seed envelope) that attaches to animals and clothing
buttress roots
1. an adventitious root growing from the base of trees adding support to the tree, 2. a type of prop root
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cabana
small building, simple structure or tent-like structure found on beaches or around swimming pools and used as bathhouses
caerulea(-is, um)
1. blue, 2. Example: Jacob's Ladder (Polemonium caeruleum) has blue flowers
caespitose
1. a plant growing in tufts, 2. Example: Rebutia (Rebutia marsoneri)
calcarate
1. spurred, as in the flower of Aquilegia, 2. Examples: Golden Columbine (Aquilegia chrysantha ), Heidi Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris), Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis)
caliciole
found growing only in limestone soils
calyptra
1. lid-like or cap-like, 2. a term for the cap of a moss capsule
calyx
1. a term describing the cluster of sepals, 2. Examples Salvia Black and Blue (Salvia guaranitica)
cambium
tissue or cells capable of unlimited growth
campanulate
1. bell shaped flowers, 2.Example: Peachleaf Campanula(Campanula percisifolia)
campylotropous
ovules bent over at a 90 degree angle to the stalk which appears to be attached to the stalk
canadensis
1. Canadian, 2. often used to represent northeastern USA, 3. Examples: Red Bud (Cercis canadensis), Canadian Ginger (Asarum canadensis)
canaliculate
having a longitudinal (lengthwise) groove or channel
canariensis (-is,-e)
1. of the Canary Islands, 2. Examples: Canary Island Ivy (Hedera canariensis)
candida
1. white, 2. Example: White Prairie Clover(Dalea candida),
cane
1. a woody stem arising from the ground usually long and pliable, 2. a hollow or straight stem of plants such as raspberry, reeds, roses, etc.
canescent
1. covered in short white hairs that are usually white or gray, very fine and short 2. gray hoary pubescence
canus (-a,-um)
Ash colored, off white
cap
1. the top of a toadstool mushroom, 2. calyptra
caperatus (-a, -um)
wrinkled
capillaceus (-a,-um)
1. slender, 2. with fine hair
capillatus (-a, -um)
with fine hair
capitate
forming a dense compact cluster of smaller flowers
capitellate
diminutive of capitate
capitulum (pl. capitula)
1. a dense, compact flower head of small stalkless flowers 2. a composite head, 3. Example: Kiss-Me-Over-The-Gate (Polginum oriental)
capsule
1. a dry fruit produced from a compound pistil and the seed pod splits along several seams, 2. examples:poppy, iris, violets, orchids, lilies, snapdragons, etc., 2. Examples:European Euonymus ( Euonymus europaeus), Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum americanum ), Flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum)
cardinalis(-a,-um)
1. red, 2. Example: Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) has red flowers
carina
a keel
carinal
referring to a keel
carinate
keeled
carnivorous plants
insectivorous
carotene
Orange, yellow and red accessory pigments found in most photosynthesizing cells.
carotenoids
Orange yellow or red pigments found in all photosynthesizing cells. They are fat soluble and don't break down as quickly as chlorophyll. For this reason many of the fall colors are produced during the end period of leaf senescence. There are two type of carotenoids carotenes and xanthophylls.
carp (-a,-o,-us)
1. relating to the fruit (greek)
carpel
1. unit of the female part of the flower, 2. the seed bearing part of the flower, consisting of the stigma, style and ovary, 3. unit of the gynoecium
carrion flower
1. a term loosely used to describe flowers the smell like rotting meat to attract pollinators, 2. Example:
cartilaginous
hard and tough but flexible
caruncle
water absorbing appendage
caryposis
1. a dry indehiscent fruit, 2. seed coat is completely fused with the pericarp, 3. examples:corn, wheat, rice, oats, etc. The next time you go to a movie ask for box of popped caryposis with butter!!!
catkins
spike-like inflorescence consisting of scaly bracts, usually unisex and often pendulous
cattails
the complex flower spike of a Cattail
1. swollen base of a plant, 2. swollen base part of stem
cell
1. the common denominator of life, 2. the smallest living unit of organisms
central vein
same as mid rib
centre lobe
center lobe of a leaf
chamber
a hollow space
chambered
with hollow spaces as in a chambered stem, pith, etc.
chartreuse
1. green-yellow coloration, 2. Example: Chartreuse Coleus (Coleus blumei)
chasmathum (-a,-us)(kas-MAN-thee-um)
1. with wide open or gaping flowers, 2, Example: Wild Oats Grass (Chasmanthium latifolium )
chemeosynthesis
1. the process of attaining energy from inorganic compounds, 2. synthesis of organic compounds from energy attained from inorganic compounds
chemical scarification
the process of modifying the hard impervious seed coat (scarification)to allow water to inter the seed by soaking the seed in chemicals or water
chloro
1.a prefix meaning green, 2. greek origin
chlorophyll
1. green pigment found in chloroplasts, 2. responsible for light energy absorption in autotrophs, 3. dissolves in alcohol
chloroplasts
plastids that contain the green pigment chlorophyll
chlorosis
1. an abnormal yellowing of plants from the lack of chlorophyll , 2. usually caused from the lack of a mineral such as iron chlorosis in Pin Oak, molybdenum chlorosis in Poinsettia, etc.
chordate
1. heart-shaped, 2. Examples of plants with heart shaped leaves: Limelight Philodendron (Philodendron Limelight), Sweet Potato Vine (Ipomea batatus Margarite), Houttuynia Chameleon (Houttuynia cordata Chameleon)
Christmas Pine
1. a type of lycopodium, 2. name comes from the fact the plants were gathered for Christmas decorations
chromosome
A macromolecule found in the nucleus of eukarytic cells that is made up of genes. DNA forms the molecular structure of a chromosome and has the genetic code.
chrysantha(-us,-um)
1. gold, golden, 2. Example: Golden Columbine(Aquilegia chrysantha) has golden yellow colored flowers
chunk bark
1. pieces of bark usually rot resistant species like Cypress or Redwood that is used as a decorative landscape mulch, 2. small pieces of bark used in epiphytic or orchid mixes
ciliate
fine hairs along the leaves edge, often form a fringe
cinerea(-us,-um)
1. smoky gray, ash colored
circumboreal forest
Spruce or Fir forest found in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.
citrina
1. yellow, 2. Example: Citrina Passion Flower (Passiflora citrina)
cladode
1. a flattened stem which could function as a leaf, 2. Examples: Wild Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), Bunny Ears Cactus(Optunia microdasys)
cladophyll
1. a flattened stem that looks like and acts like a leaf, 2. cladode
clasping
1. sessile leaf base clasps around the stem, 2. Example: Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule)
class
the third largest division in the classification system of all living organisms
classification
A system by which all living organisms are placed into a basic eight step system consisting of domain, kingdom, phylum (division), class, order, family, genus, species.
clavate
1. having the shape of a club, 2. gradually widening toward the apex of the leaf, spadix, etc., 3. Examples:Jack in the Pulpit (Arisema triphyllum)
clavellate
1. diminutive of clavate, 2. shaped like a small club
clavicle
a tendril
claviculate
having tendrils
claviform
clavate
clavuncle
a stigmatic cap
cleft
1. the bottom or lower part of a sinus, 2 a leaf that is cut about half-way to the midrib or base
climax
The final, stable stage in succession which will develop naturally in a given environment. As in a Beech forest.
climber
a class of vigorous growing roses which do not attach themselves but must be tied on to the supporting structure
clinging roots
adventitious roots that form along the stem of a vine that holds onto a surface by clinging (English Ivy)
clinging disks
a tendril of a vine that ends in a disk which fastens itself to a surface with a cement-like substance (Virginia Creeper, Boston Ivy)
cloche
1. a structure used to protect plants from rain, wind, and light frost. They also can be used to provide added warmth for early season plantings.
clone
Plants arising originally by vegetative propagation from one plant . These plants will be genetically identical
club moss
1. a type of lycopodium, 2. name comes from the club-like , cone-like strobili
clustered
1. three or more flowers gathered closely together in a single or branched group, 2. similar to glomerate, 3. Examples: Ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), Clustered Bell Flower (Campanula glomerata)
coarsely serrated
1. leaf margin is coarsely serrated (saw tooth), 2.Examples: American Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)
coccinea(-us)
1. dark red, scarlet, 2. Example: Scarlet Oak (Quercus coccinea), Scarlet Sage (Salvia coccinea)
coelestina
1. pale blue, 2. Example: Bartram's Ixia(Calydorea coelestina) has blue flowers
columnar
1. shaped like a column, 2. Examples: Old Man Cactus (Cephalocereus senilis )
compacta(-um)
1. used to describe a compact variety of a plant, 2. compact, 3. Example: Compact European Cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus compactum)
coma
1. tuft of hair on the tip of a seed, 2. the tuft of bracts on the top of a fruit like a Pineapple (Ananas comosus), 3. the head of a tree
comal
pertaining to a coma
comatose
has a coma or pertaining to a coma
comatose
the place at which two carpels join each other
common name
1. a name given to a plant by any person or group of people for any reason, at any time 2. plants may have many common names depending on local edible, medicinal, structural uses or could be trade names, 3. scientific name (opp)
comose
has a coma or coma like
complanate
1. flattened, 2. Example: the seed pod of a Locust tree
complete
1. with all parts as with a flower having sepals, petals, stamens and pistils
complete fertilizer
a fertilizer that contains the major plant nutrients (N)nitrogen. (P)potassium, (K) potassium
composite
1. daisy family of flowers (Asteraceae), 2. a flower head made up of small flowers growing together 3. Examples: Purple Coneflower (Echinacea), Shasta Daisy Becky (Leucanthemum), Cup Plant (Silphinum perfoliatum), 4. Search for more members of the Asteraceae
composite flower
composite head
composite head
1. a compact inflorescence consisting of small central florets called disc flowers surrounded by a ring of ray flowers with their strap-like petals, 2. flowers of the Asteraceae family
compost
decomposed vegetative material, used as organic matter in gardens
compost pile
the pile of organic material that is allowed to decompose to create compost
composting
the process by which vegetative material is decomposed
compound
having two or more like parts
compound fruit
1. a fruit developing from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers, 2. a fruit developing from multiflowers is a multiple fruit, 3. a fruit developing from a flower with several ovaries is a aggregate fruit.
compound layering
1. a form of layering similar to simple layering except more than one point is touching the soil, 2. same as serpentine layering
compound leaf
1. a leaf were the blade is divided into leaflets, 2. Examples: Grape Ivy Ellen Danica (Cissus rhombifolia), Poison Ivy (2) (Toxicodendron rybergii), Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum americanum)
compound ovary
an ovary with two or more carpels
compound pistil
a pistil composed of two or more carpels
compound umbel
1. a form of an inflorescence called an umbel, 2. an umbel with compound flowers called umbellets
compressed
flattened
cone
1. a cluster of scales, 2. fruit of conifers, 2. Examples: Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana), Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)
conelet
1. first year cone, 2. young immature cone, 3. Examples:European Larch (Larix decidua)
conglomerate
rounded small pebbles or larger boulders cemented together by hardened clay
conifers
1.generally referring to a cone bearing plant and most but not all have needles, 2. Examples: Spruce (Picea), Fir (Abies) , Redwood, Cypress, Arborvitae (Thuja), Yew (Taxus), Pine (Pinus), etc.
coniferous
referring to conifers, bearing cones
connate
joined or attached, fused
connate perfoliate
pair of leaves joined at the base, surrounding the stem
contractile root
1. specialized root designed to contract during adverse conditions and pull the plant down to an appropriate position, 2. can be found in many succulent plants such as Haworthia (Haworthia), Lithops,Livng Rock (Pleiospilos bolusii ) etc.
convolute(- ed)
1. rolled with two edges towards each other, 2. coiled or twisted laterally, 3. usually referring to leaves or petals
cordate(-a)
1. heart shaped, 2. the shape formed at the base of the leaf when the leaf curves back from each side of the petiole, 3. Examples: Red Bud (Cercis canadensis Covey)
coriaceous
leather-like tough
cork
the protective outer tissue of bark
cork cambium
layer of cells within the bark layer that produces the cork
corky ridges
elongated ridges of soft springy wood
corm
1. similar in appearance to bulbs but dissimilar in structure, 2. short swollen underground stem surrounded by the previous years leaf bases, 3. common corms are crocus and gladiolus
cormels
small corms formed around the base of the stem
cormlets
small immature corms formed around the corm
corolla
1. a collective term for the inner whorl of a flower, 2. all of the petals of a flower
corona
the outgrowth of the perianth, trumpet of a Daffodil
cortex
1. latin for shell, 2. tissue in roots and stems immediately inside of the epidermis
corymb
1. flat-topped or rounded top cluster of small flowers arising from different points on the same stem, 2. a type of inflorescence called a raceme where the lower pedicels are longer than the upper , 3. cyme, 4. Examples: Korean Mountain Ash (Sorbus alnifolia), Diabolo Ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), Achillea hybrids (Achillea millefolium), White Dome Hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens Dardom)
cotyledon
1. seed leaf, not true leaves, 2. the primary leaves of an embryo
crenate (crenatus)
1. rounded teeth on the margin, 2. convex teeth, 3. scalloped, 4. Example :Old Gold Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis ), Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus)
crenulate
with small rounded teeth along the margin of a leaf
crenulatus
diminutive of crenate
crested
cristate
crispapte
having curled or ruffled margins
crisped
1. wavy edge or margin, 2: Eaxamples: Prince Rupert Scented Geranium (2) (Pelargonium crispum), Lemon-scented Geranium (Pelargonium crispum)
crispus
1. having the margin irregularly divided, 2. curled, wavy or crinkled edges of a leaf, 3. Example: Curly Dock (Rumex crispus)
cristate
1. from the latin word cristatus meaning with appearance of a comb, plume or brush, 2. crested form of fasciation developing from a single growing point, 3. Examples: Jewel Box Celosia (2)(Celosia argentea cristata), Cocks Comb Celosia(Celosia argentea)
crocea
1. yellow, 2. Example: Amanita crocea a yellow colored mushroom
crosier
shaped like a bishops staff or shepherds hook
cross pollination
the transfer of pollen between two different plants
crown
1. the base of the plant where the stem and the rootstock join, 2. the entire rootstock, 3. the upper part of the rootstock from which the new shoots will arise, 4. referring to the corona of some flowers
crown gall
A tumor us growth of tissue caused by a bacterium. The deformation of the tissue will disrupt the movement of water and nutrients and could evenly kill the plant.
crustose lichens
1. a lichen growth form, 2. forms highly colored crusty patches on rocks and trees
cryophicic
cold loving
culm
the stem of grass or sedge
cultivar
1. a cultivated variety, 2. a clearly distinguishable cultivated plant that when propagated will retain it's characteristics.
cunneate
1. leaf base tapering to the petiole in the shape of a wedge, 2. sometimes applied to petals, 3. Example Burning Bush (Euonymus alatus)
cup
1. the receptacle which holds the seed of an acorn, 2. in narcissus (Daffodils), when the corona is shorter than the outer segments of the perianth
cupulate
having a cup-shaped sheath which encloses or partially encloses the fruit
cupule
a cup
cupuliform
cup-shaped
curd
referring to the dense cluster of immature flowers that form the head of cauliflowers, brussels sprouts, etc.
curled
crispus
cushion
referring to a small dense plant that from's a dome-shaped mound plant
cusp
sharp point formed from an extended margin of a leaf
cuspidate
1. abruptly pointed, 2. having a cusp or a thorn at the apex
cuticle
waxy layer on the leaf or stem of a plant
cutin
forms the plant's cuticle
cuttings
a method of propagation when a portion of a stem, root, modified stems or leaf is cut from the parent plant and forced to root
cyaneum
1. blue, 2. Example Allium cyaneum has cobalt blue flowers
1. in the form of a cyanthium, 2. cup-shaped
cyanthium
An inflorescence found in the Euphorbia genus. Consists of a cup-like involucre containing a single pistil (female flower) surrounded by the male flowers, each with a single stamen.
cyclic
occurring in apparent cycles or whorls
cylindrical
1. shaped like a cylinder, 2. Examples of plants with cylindrical parts: Variegated Corn Cob Euphorbia (stem) (Euphorbia mammillaris variegata), Creeping Red Sorrel (seed pod) (Oxalis corniculata), Purple Prairie Clover (floral spike) (Dales purpurea), Chives (leaves) (Allium schoenoprasum)
cyme
1. a flat topped or rounded determinate inflorescence in which the terminal flower blooms first, 2. corymb, 3. Example:Weihenstephaner Sedum (Sedum kamtschaticum var floriferum Weihenstephaner), Snoshoni Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var tomemtosa ), Arrowwood Viburnum (Viburnum dentatum)
cymose
1. cyme-like, 2. has flowers in a cyme
cymule
1. a section of a compound cyme, 2. a small cyme
cynarrhodium
1. a fleshy hollow fruit enclosing achenes, 2. a rose hip fruit, 2. Example: Rose (Rosa)
cyst
any thick walled resting spore
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D

daffodil
1.common or English name for members of the genus Narcissus, 2. a spring blooming plant that grows from a bulb
dalles
a dell
damping off
a fungus disease attacking seedling, the seedling will collapse and die, usually caused by wet conditions and over crowding
deadhead
to prune out faded flowers
deadman
a tie, timber or slab of stone that is put at a 90 degree angle into the slope to anchor the wall
deca
prefix meaning ten
decamerous
has parts arranged in sets of ten
decandrous
has ten anthers
decapetalous
has ten petals
decaphyllous
has ten leaves
decasepalous
has ten sepals
decaspermous
has 10 seeds
deciduous
1. a deciduous plant normally loses its leaves at the approach of winter, 2. falling after the completion of a normal function, 3. opposite of evergreen
declinate
declined
declined
curved downward
decompose
1. to separate into simpler elements, 2. to rot or decay, 2. to under go chemical break down
decomposer
Any organism such as bacteria or fungus that breaks down (decompose) dead plants and animals (organic material). This process recycles the organic substances.
decompound
1. repeatedly and often irregularly compound into numerous leaflets, 3. more than one compound 3. Example: Dutchman's Breeches (Dicentra cucullaria )
decumbent
1. a stem laying on the ground with ends ascending, 2. Example: Spring Cinquefoil (Potentilla neumanniana )
decurrent
1. extending down the stem, as in a leaf clasping a stem for most of it's length, 2. the lower portion of the leaf lies flat against the stem
decurved
declined
decussant
1. arranged in pairs along the stem and each pair is at right angles to the pair above
deflexed
bent sharply downward or backwards
deflorate
being past the flowering time
defoliation
1. stripping of leaves from a plant, 2. using a herbicide to remove the foliage from a plant, 3. shedding of leaves
dehiscence
the opening at the maturity of fruits and anthers
dehiscent
1. opening at maturity and releasing or exposing it's contents, 2. some dry fruit are called dehiscent since they spit open a maturity, 3. Example: Field Penny Crest (Thlaspi arvense), Flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum)
dehiscent dry fruit
1. dry fruit that splits open at maturity, 2. Example: Sunburst Hypericum (Hypericum frondosum ), Flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum)
dehiscent fleshy fruit
a fleshy fruit that splits open at maturity
dell
a river gorge with nearly vertical walls
deliquescent
breaking into smaller, finer branches
deltoid
1. shaped like a equilateral triangle, one of the sides being a base, 2. commonly used to describe a leaf, 3. an irregular shaped triangle, 3. Examples:Cottonwood (Populus deltoides)
dendriform
tree-like
dendroid
tree-like
dendritic
tree-like
dendrochronology
The study of tree rings to determine the age of the tree and inference of the trees age to the climate.
dendrology
the study of trees
dense
1. crowded together, thick, compact, 2 .Example:Asselyn Norway Spruce (Picea abies Asselyn)
dentate(dentatus)
1. having sharp teeth on the margins usually pointed outwards, 2. coarsely toothed with sharp teeth pointing outwards
denticulate(denticulatus)
1. having small teeth, 2. diminutive of dentate
dentition
the arrangement of teeth on the edges of leaves
denuded
nake from the loss of covering
deeply cut
1. deeply cut, 2. deeply divided, 3. Example: Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisifolia )
deeply divided
1. divided, 2. Examples: Wood Anemone (Anemone quinquefolia), Philodendron Xanadu (Philodendron xanadu ), Cardon (Cynara cardunculus),
dermal
skin
determinate
1. the main stem of the plant ends in a terminal flower stopping the further development of the axis (height of the plant), 2. a plant such as a determinate tomato plant has a predicted height, 3. in reference to inflorescence in which the terminal flowers bloom first, 4. opp. indeterminate
di
prefix indicating twice, two fold, double
diadelphous
stamens united into two, often unequal, sets by their filaments
diaphragmed
pith which is solid with transverse bars of denser tissue at intervals between the nodes
diazotroph
an organism that can fix nitrogen
dibble
1. to make a small hole for planting seedlings or seeds, 2. a tool used to make a small hole
dichotomous
1. branched or forked into two or more or less equal parts, 2. Examples: Gingko (Gingko biloba)
dicot
short form of dicotyledon
dicotyledon
1. a plant having two cotyledons , 2. a subclass of Angiosperms
dicotyledonous
a dicot plant
dieback
when tips, shoots, canes, etc. die due to disease or weather damage
diffuse
1. loosley or widely spreading form
digitate
1. having lobes, divisions or veins that radiate from one point like the fingers of a hand, 2. palmate
dingy
neither white nor brighly colored, as applied to pubescence
diploid
1. the 2n chromosome number stage, 2. having two sets of chromosomes, 3. the basic number of chromosomes for the organism
dioecious
1. when a plant has staminate and pistillate flowers on different plants, 2. a type of plant with male and female plants such as many Holly (Ilex), Blueberry, Gingko, etc., 3. Example: Mountain Everlasting (Antennaria dioica ), WInterberry Holly (Ilex verticillata ), Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum americanum), Chenille Plant (Acalypha hispida)
disarticulating
1. Falling away by abscission, leaving a clean cut scar, as with most leaves, many flowers, some twig tips, etc.
disc flowers
1. small central flowers of a composite head
disc shaped
1. almost circular in outline, 2. orbiculate
discoid
chambered pith
disk
1. an enlarged tip, 2. as in the disks of Boston Ivy tendrils
dissected
1. deeply cut into narrow segments, 2. Examples:Flixweed (Descuraina sophia)
distal
1. toward or at the tip or far end, 2. toward the apex, 3. away from the base
distal leaflet
leaflets furthest away from the junction of the petiole and the stem
distichous
arranged in two opposite rows, 2 ranked
diurnal
flowers that open only during the day
divaricata (-um, -us)
1. spreading, 2. Example: Spreading Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster divaricatus)
divided
cut, lobed or separated to the base or midrib
division(propagation)
a form of propagation in which the mother plant is separated into smaller clumps or plants
division (taxonomy)
The largest undivided category of classification of organisms within the plant kingdom. Equivalent to phylum in the animal kingdom.
Dog Vomit Fungus
nick name for Slime Mold
dormancy
dormant
dominant
an animal or plant exerting considerable influence on an area or other plants or animals
dormant
1. a state of suspended growth as in seeds, 2. not in an active state of growth, 3. a resting period such as the winter
dorsal
1. pertaining to the back side of a leaf or organ, 2. abaxial, 3. opp. ventral
double dormancy
1. seeds that have two dormancy factors, 2. factors are usually hard seed coat and a dormant embryo (seed dormancy)
double flower
A flower with the normal complement of petals is called single. A flower with more than the normal amount of petals is referred to as double.
double leader
a tree that produces two leaders or shoots at the apex
double-nose
1. a term describing a Narcissus bulb with two growing points, 2. used to determine the size of a Narcissus bulb
double serrated
1. leaves that have smaller serrations on the larger serrations, 2. small teeth on the large teeth 3. Examples: American Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), Whitespire Birch (Betula platyphylla japonica)
downy
1. having soft hair, 2. Examples: Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhia)
driftless area
area in Wisconsin (USA) that is unglaciated
drip line
drip zone
drip tip
a pointed leaf tip, helps drain the water from the leaf
drip zone
the area beneath a tree occupied by the roots into which water drips from the leaf canopy
drooping
1. bending or hanging down, 2. pendulous, 3. Example: Gray Headed Coneflower (Ratibda pinnata), Turks Cap Lily (2)(Lilium superbum), Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)
draught
a period of dryness
drum
flat-topped variety of cabbage
drum head
drum
drumlin
an oval shaped hill formed at the base of a glacier made of glacial till
drupaceous
1. consisting of drupes, 2. like a drupe, 3. bearing drupes
drupe
1. a fleshy fruit with a single pit or stone, 2. seed is contained in a hard stone surrounded by a fleshy layer and skin, 3. Examples: peach, plums, olive, cherries, almonds, Brazil nut, etc., 4: Eamples:Wintergreen Hawthorn(Crataegus viridis), Arrowwood Viburnum (Viburnum dentatum)
drupel
a druplet
druplet
a small fruit as in the individual segment of a raspberry
drupeole
a little drupe
drupiferous
having drupes
dry fruit
1. pericarp is dry at maturity, 2. fruit that is dry at maturity
dry wall
a wall in which the stones are fitted together with out the use of mortar
dry well
a hole filled with loose rock into which water will drain and seep into the soil
duct
the part of a plants vascular system carrying air water, lipids, etc.
duff
incompletely decomposed organic matter
dumetose
bush-like in from
dumose
1. bush-like, 2. full of bushes
duramen
heartwood
dwarf
1. very small. 2. a term used to describe the comparison of a smaller plant to the mature size of the plant
dyad
a group of two
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E

e
a prefix meaning away from, without
echinocarpa
1. bearing spiny fruit, 2. acanthocarpa
ecosystem
system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
ectozoochory
1. When plants develop hooks, spines, ect. on a seed, that attach to animals, for the purpose of dispersing the seeds., 2. Examples: Agrimony (Agrimonia gryposepala)
edge
the part of an ecosystem near its perimeter
edge
border around planting beds
edge
margin
egg
1. female reproductive gamete that will develop into the seed, 2. found in the ovary, which is part of the pistil or the female part of the flower
elliptic(elliptical)
1. narrow oval, broadest at the middle and narrower at the two ends, 2. Example: Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis ) , Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus), Bunch Berry (Cornus canadensis)
ellipsoid
elliptical in section, shaped like a football
embryo
an immature plant found within a seed
encrusted
covered with a hard limey crust
endemic
native to or confined to a restricted area. A plant is said to be endemic to an area if it is found growing nowhere else.
endentate
1. without teeth, 2. entire
English plant support
a type of plant support frame
ensiform
sword shaped like the leaves of an Iris
entire
1. completely smooth-edged, 2. lacking teeth or crenations on the margins, 3. no marginal division, 4. endentate, 5. Example: St. Johns Wort (Hypericum calycinum)
envelope
envelope of a flower, formed by the calyx or corolla or both.
epappose
without a pappus
epetiolate
without a petiole, 2. sessile
epetiolulate
without a petiolue, 2. a sessile leaflet
ephemeral
1.Plants such as annuals that complete their entire life cycle in a very short period of time, 2. Annuals that grow in the desert and wild flowers that grow in the shade of deciduous trees are ephemeral plants.
ephemeral pond
1. a pond lasting only a short period of time, 2. Also called vernal or temporary pond
epi
greek prefix often referring to the outer or outer most
epicarp
1. outer most layer or skin of a fruit, 2. exocarp
epidermal
1. having to do with the outer layer, 2. referring to the epidermis
epidermis
outer layer of cells which form a protect sheath for many parts of the plants, such as the epidermal layer of the leaf
epigeal
the cotyledons are raised above the soil during germination
epiphyte
1. a plant growing on another but is not parasitic to the host, 3. plants growing in trees such as Bromeliads, Orchids, Christmas Cactus, etc., 3. Examples: Easter Cactus (Rhipsalidosis gaetneri) Christmas Cactus (Schlumbergera bridgessi), Staghorn Fern (Platycerium), Birds Nest Fern (Asplenium nidus)
epiphytic mix
a well drained growing media for epiphytes
equisetum
genus name for horsetails
eradicate
to eliminate
erect
1. upright growing habit , 2. Example: Lemon Scented Geranium (Pelargonium crispum),Prince Rupert Scented Geranium (Pelargonium crispum)
erose (erosus)
the margins are irregularly toothed , jagged or notched as if chewed by an animal
erosulate
more or less erose
esker
a narrow ridge consisting of sand and gravel deposited by a glacier
espalier
1. a plant trained to grow in two dimensional fashion, 2. plant trained to grow on one plain, flat
etaerio
1. aggregate cluster of ovaries all derived from a single flower, 2. aggregate fruit
ethylene
1. a gas formed from the ripening of fruit, 2. many plants need this to stimulate the production of a flower
etiolation
A condition in plants, usually caused by lack of light where the plant has long internodal stretch, elongated stem and pale colors.
eu
greek prefix that means true or real. Such as eubacteria or the true bacteria.
eukaryotic
1.a cell that has a nucleus, 2. an organism that has a nucleus, 3. cells with a nucleus contained in a membrane, 4. opposite prokaryotic
Euonymus crown gall
A gall disease of Euonymus caused by a bacteria. Forms large tumorous, disfiguring growths on the stems of the plants.
Euonymus scale
A scale insect (Unaspis suonymis) that creates large colonies of white scale on many types of Euonymus.
evenly pinnate
1. a pinnate leaf that ends without an odd leaflet or tendril, it ends in matched pairs, 2. abruptly pinnate
even-pinnately compound
1. a pinnately compound leaf that ends without an odd leaflet or tendril, it ends in matched pairs, 2. abruptly pinnate, 3. evenly pinnate
evergreen
plants that hold onto their foliage throughout the entire year.
everlastings
flowers that retain their shape, size and form when dried. Some plants dry naturally like Strawflowers, Baby's Breath, Globe Amaranth, etc. Some are easy to dry like Yarrow (2), Celosia (2), Tansy, Globe Thistle etc. Most any plant can be dried.
excelsa
tall
exine
the outer layer of a pollen grain or spore wall
exfoliating
1. pealing off in layers, woody plants can have exfoliating bark, 2. Examples: Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera), Amur Chokeberry (Prunus maackii ), Lace Bark Pine (Pinus bungeana), Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata)
exfoliating epidermal tissue
1. the epidermal tissue pealing off in layers , 2. Example: Seven Sons Flower (Heptacodium miconides)
exocarp
1. the outer most layer of a fruit wall, 2. epicarp
exotics
1. alien, 2. a plant primarily of European or Asian origin that was accidentally or intentionally introduced into an area
exotic species
exotics
exserted
1. extending beyond, protuding, 2. included (opp)
extirpated
to remove from an area
extra axillary
above rather than in the axil
extrose
1. facing outward, 2. turned toward the outside
eyes
axillary buds located at the nodes on tubers, rhizomes, etc.
eye
1. center of a flower which has a different shade or color from the rest, 2. Example: Dianthus Artic Fire (Dianthus deltoides), Strawberry Parfait Dianthus (Dianthus chinensis)
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F

fairy ring
ring of fungus growing in rings outward from a central point
falcate
sickle shaped
fall
1. petals of an iris that droop, 2. outer whorl of the perianth of an iris
family
1.a taxonomical classification unit that contains organism that are closely related, 2. a group of genus, 3. the fifth step in the classification system of living organisms
fan
1. shaping a plant into the form of a fan, 2. a form of espalier
fans
1. used to describe the side shoots of a rhizome of an Iris (Iris germanica), or a division of Daylily (Hemerocallis), etc. when divided are cut back into the shape of a fan
farinose
covered with a meal-like powder
fasciated
abnormally much flattened or crested growth
fasciation
1. an abnormal growth such as cristate or monstrous, 2. when stems abnormally grow together
fascicle
a cluster or a bundle
fascicle root
1. a cluster of roots, 2. tuberous roots
fascicle sheath
a tubular structure, often made of leaves or bracts, which surround a stem or other plant organ
fastigiate
1.clustered, parallel and erect giving a room like appearance, 2. often applied to the growth from of a plant, 3. Examples: Columnar Oak (Quercus robur fastigiata), Sentry Ginkgo (Ginko biloba fastigiata Sentry), Islels Fastigated Spruce (Picea abies fastigiata Isles)
faucal
referring to the throat of a calyx or corolla
fauces
the throat of a calyx or corolla
faveolate
1. pitted, honeycombed, 2. such as the surface of a peanut
favose
faveolate
female
the part of the flower called the pistil
female flower
1. a flower lacking stamens, has functional carpels, 2. a pistillate flower
fen
an area like a bog but is alkaline as not acidic like a bog
fenestrate
1. a translucent area, 2. a window like opening or perforations, 3. Example with openings:Window Leaf Plant (Monstera obliqua), 4. Examples with translucent areas: String-of-Beads (Senecio rowleyanus), Baby Toes (Fenestraria rhopalophylla)
fern
1. A primitive seedless vascular plant that is a member of the plant division Pterophyta ., 2. Example: Boston Fern (Nephrolepis exaltata bostoniensis), Rabbit Foot Fern (Davallia fejeensis ), search for more ferns
ferox
1. latin meaning fierce, 2. very thorny, 3. Example: the leaflets of Encephalatorus ferox are thorny
ferruginous
1. the color of iron rust, 2. impregnated with iron
ferrugo
rust disease of plants
fertile
1. capable of germination, 2. soils capable of supporting quality plant growth
fertile flower
1.Such as in Hydrangea or Viburnum the non-showy flowers of the inflorescence (corymb) or (cyme), 2. Examples: Hydrangea Teller Blue (Hydrangea macrophylla Blaumeise), Variegated Lacecap Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla Variegated)
fertile frond
1. The frond (leaf) of a fern where the spores are produced. Usually the are distinctly different from the sterile frond. 2. Example : Purple Stem Royal Fern (2) (Osmunda regalis purpurasens), Staghorn Fern (2)(Platycerium), Japanese Shield Fern(Dryopteris erythrosora)
fertility
being fertile
fertilize
1. the fusion of the pollen (male gamete) with the ovule (female gamete) to form a seed, 2. pollination, 3. impregnation, 4. to use a fertilizer
fertilizer
1. A substance incorporated into the soil or growing media to improve the fertility, 2. could be natural organic (manure, compost, bone meal, etc) or synthetic manufactured (ammonia, potassium chloride, etc. , 3. could be in a solid or liquid form
fertilizing
to fertilize
fertilizing the air
to add carbon dioxide to the air
fertilization
the act of fertilizing a flower
fetid
1. having or emitting an unpleasant odor, 2. stinking, 3. Examples of plants with flowers that produce a fetid odor: Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus ), Purple Passion Plant (Gynura tomentosa)
fibrous
a root system consisting of more or less thin roots branching from the base of the plant
fiborus root system
fibrous
fiddlehead
a young, edible, tightly coiled fern frond that resembles the spiral end of a violin (fiddle)
fig
the fruit of figs called a syconium
filament
1. the that supports the anther, 2. part of the stamen
filiform
thread like, long and slender
finely serrate
1. small teeth or fine serration, 2. Example: Balsam Popple (Poppulus balsmifera)
fissure
1. in vertical furrows, 2. used to refer to the texture of bark
flabellate
fan shaped
flabelliform
flabellate
flaccid
limp, flabby, lacking turgor pressure
flange
a projecting rim or edge
flare
used to describe Iris flower falls having an outward horizontal curve
flat topped cyme
1. a cyme in which the florets form a flat top, 2. Examples: Compact Europen Cranberry Bush (2)(Viburnum opulus compactum)
flava
yellow
flavescent
yellowish
fleshy
thick and pulpy, succulent
fleshy aggregate fruit
1. an aggregate fruit formed from a cluster of many pistils from one flower, the fruit is soft and fleshy, 2. pericarp is soft at maturity
fleshy fruit
1. all or most of the ovary wall (pericarp) is soft at maturity , 2. a fruit that is somewhat juicy or pulpy
fleshy rhizome
rhizome
fleshy spine
1. a soft spine, 2. Example: Aloe vera (Aloe vera)
flexuose
1. zigzagged, having curves or bends, 2. Examples: Devils Backbone (Pedilanthus tithymaloides variegatus ), Morus Unryu (Morus australis Unryu)
flexuous
flexouse
floral envelope
a collective term for the calyx and corolla of a flower
floral sheath
1. tissue surrounding, enclosing the flower, 2. a tubular calyx
floral tube
1. an elongated tubular portion of the perianth
flore plene
double flowered
florescence
the flowering period of a plant
floret
1. a small flower, 2. one flower of an inflorescence, 2. Examples: Aloe vera (Aloe vera), Hosta Sea Spirit (Hosta Sea Spirit)
floribunda
1. a characteristic of plants producing flowers in clusters, 2. a classification of roses
floriferous
1. having many flowers, 2. flower bearing
flower
The reproductive organ of an angiosperm, consisting of at least the stamen, pistil or both and may have associate parts such as petals and bracts.
flowerhead
a crowded cluster of stemless or nearly stemless flowers, that are either disk florets or ray florets
floccose
tufts of soft, wooly hair
fluted
grooved
foetid
fetid
foliage
referring to the leaves of a plant
foliage plants
1. plants grown mainly for their foliage, 2. flowers may be insignificant or difficult to produce
foliar
relating to or applied to leaves
foliar feeding
to feed the plants through their leaves, usually through a foliar spray
foliar spray
a liquid nutrient applied to the plant in the form of a fine spray
foliate
1. leaf-like, 2. having leaves, 3. leafleted
foliaceous
leaf-like in color and form
folious lichens
1. a lichen growth form, 2. forms circular patterns of leaf-like thalli that overlap, the edges are frequently crinkled, common on the bark of trees
follicle
1. a single ripened ovary that splits open along one seam, 2. a dry fruit formed from a single carpel that splits along one seam, 3. examples:peony, columbine, milkweed, etc.
forb
a broadleaf herbaceous plant
forma
The lowest category of taxonomic rank. Differences may be very minor such as color of the berry.
form
the structure or position of the petals that determines a flowers overall form
formal garden
1. a garden laided out in a geometeric design, 2. Example: Zinnia Garden
formation pruning
1. the pruning of trees, shrubs and other plant material into desired patterns, 2. topiary, 3. espalier
fragrans
1. fragrant, 2. Example: Corn Plant (Dracaena fragans Massangeana)
fringed
1. with hairs or bristles along the margins, 2. Example: Fringed Gentian (Gentianopsis crinita)
frond
1. the leaf-like part of a fern, 2. a fern leaf, 3. Example: Sensitive Fern (Oneclea sensibilis ), Ghost Fern (Anthyrium nipponicum ), 4. also sterile frond, fertile frond
frost crack
A long vertical crack in the bark of a tree that is caused by frost or cold splitting a stressed area.
fruit
1. a broad botanical term that refers to the seeds and their surrounding covering, 2. a ripened ovary
fruitescent
becoming shrubby
fruiticose
1. shrub-like, shrubby, 2. Examples: Potentilla fruiticosa (1), (2),
fruiticose lichens
1. a lichen growth form, 2. the thalli are usually branched forming small shrub-like organisms, can hang from branches
fulvous
1. tawny, 2. dull yellow
fungus (pl. fungi)
1. a member of the Fungi kingdom, which consists of mushrooms, toadstools, puff balls, ringworm, athletes foot, etc. 2. organisms that are plant-like but lack chlorophyll and many are saprophytes
funiculus
1. seed stalk, 2. the stalk that holds the ovule to the wall of the ovary
funnelform
1. a flower shape that widens upward, 2. the corolla widening outward, 3. the corolla is shaped like a funnel
furcate
forked or branched
furfuraceous
scaly or scruffy
furrowed
1. having longitudinal channels or grooves, 2. Example: Bur Oak (Quercus macrocephala), Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), 3. impressed
fuscous
color of grayish-brown
fused petals
1. with petals fused that form a tubular flower, 2. Examples: Cream Gentian (Gentiana alba ), Closed Gentian (Gentiana andrewsii)
fusiform
1. spindle shapes, 2. tapering to each end from a smaller, narrower mid-section
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gall
1. A tumorous growth on a plant caused by a parasite such as fungus, bacteria, insects, etc., 2. a bare spot in a field
gall weevil
A beetle whose grubs attacks members of the Brassica (cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, etc.) and cause small pea size galls on the plant.
gametangium (pl gametangia)
a structure in which gametes are produced
gamete
a sex cell being either male or female, when they unit a new individual (embryo) can develop
gametophore
a stalk on which a gametangium is borne
gazebo
small structure, usually roofed, 4, 6 or 8 sides and open sided located in gardens, parks or yards
gametophyte
the haploid (n) gamete producing stage of an organism that exhibits alternation of generation
gemmae
Groups of cells that are formed in the gemmae cup. When detached from the thallus they are able to form a new thallus. This is a from of asexual reproduction in Liverworts.
gemmae cup
Small cups formed on the surface of a Liverwort's thallus in which the gemmae are formed.
gene
A unit of heredity that is coded by the DNA. Gene's make up the chromosome.
genus
1.a taxonomical classification unit that contains organism that are closely related, 2. a group of species, 3. the sixth step in the classification system of living organisms
geotropism
either the negative (growth away from), or the positive(growth toward) responce of plants to gravity
germinate
1. seeds beginning to grow, 2. seeds sprouting, 3 The germination rate of seeds can be affected by all or some of the following factors: temperature, light, moisture, growing media, amount of light, dormancy factors, etc.
germination
germinate
giganteum
1. large, 2. Example: Giant Allium (Allium giganteum)
glabrous
1. without hairs of any kind, 2. smooth
glandular
hairs with enlarged glands at the tips
glaucescent
becoming glaucous
glaucous
1. covered with a whitish or bluish waxy coat, usually caused by a removable powder or fine wax, 2. Examples: Sedum Donkey's Tail (Sedum morganianum ), Giant Coneflower (Rudbeckia maxima)
globose
1. round or spherical shape, 2. Examples:Globe Amaranth All Around Purple (Gomphrena globosa)
globose berries
1. round or spherical berries or berry-like fruit, 2. Example:Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisema triphyllum ), Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
globular
1. circular
globular stem
1. a circular almost ball shaped stem, 2. Example: Golden Barrel Cactus (Echinocactus grusonii)
globular flower head
1. a flower head made up of many small flowers in a globular shape, 2. Examples: Common Thrift (Armeria maritima), Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis )
glochid
1. small barbed spines or bristles (bristle-like spines )found on some species of cactus, 2. Example: Bunny Ears Cactus (Opuntia microdasys)
glomerate(-a)
1. in dense, compacted clusters, 2. often applied to flower clusters, 3.Examples: Clustered Bell Flower (Campanula glomerata), Grape Hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum)
glomerulate
arranged in very small dense clusters
glomerule
1. a dense small cluster
glossy
1. shiny reflective surface, 2. Example: Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), Climbing Hydrangea (Hydrangea anomala subsp petiolaris)
glume
a stiff chaff-like bract pair found at the base of a grass spikelet
glutinous
1. sticky, 2. viscid
gnawed
erose
gonous
a greek suffix meaning angled
graft
the process where a scion (shoot) is attached to a rootstock to create a new plant
grafted cactus
1. the process of by joining two separate but compatible varieties of cactus plants, 2. Examples: Grafted Cactus
grain
1. a dry indehiscent fruit, seed coat is completely fused with the pericarp,2. Examples:corn, wheat, rice, oats, etc. The next time you go to a movie ask for box of popped dry indehiscent fruit with butter!!!
graminaceous
grass-like or grassy
granular
1. minutely rough, 2. covered with small granules
granular structure
roughly spherical soil structure
granuliferous
producing grain or grain like seeds
gravitropism
1. A growth movement (tropism) by which plants roots grow towards the gravitational pull. Stems have a negative gravitropism and grow away from the gravitational pull.
gravel
a mixture of very small stones, rock fragments and sand
greenwood
New growth on woody plants that as it hardens takes on the color of the mature wood. The leaves will loose the early growth color and the stems will become more slender
greenwood cuttings
1. cuttings taken from the greenwood of woody plants, 2. cuttings taking a bit later than softwood cuttings, at this time the growth is starting to take on the appearance of the mature plant
grid plant braces
a type of plant support frame made of a wire ring with a wire grade through which the plant will grow
grooved
marked with a long narrow channel
ground color
1. in primulas the ring of color next to the center in gold laced polyanthus, usually black, brown or red, 2. Example: Primula Gold Lace (Primula elatior Gold Lace)
ground cover
1. used to describe low, dense growing plants, 2. Examples: Japanese Spurge (Pachysandra terminalis), Vinca (Vinca minor), Ajuga (Ajuga reptens)
ground pine
1. a type of lycopodium, 2. name comes from the fact they look like small pine trees
gum
a sticky resin
gumbo
a term used to refer to adobe soils
gymno
naked
gymnosperms
a class of plants that form their seed in an exposed condition, many times this is a cone
gynoecia
1. the production of pistillate flowers, 2. imperfect flowers
gynoecium
1. collectively the female part of the flower, 2. collectively all the carpels of a flower
gynophore
a stalk bearing a pistil above the point of stamen attachment, 2. a central stalk in some flowers that bears the gynoecium
gynostegium
A characteristic and complex structure formed by the fusion of the stigma and stamen. A typical feature for members of the Milkweed family.
gypsophiles
1. plants which thrive or live in a gypsum rich soil, 2. Examples: Creeping Baby's Breath Rosea (Gypsophila repens Rosea)
gypsum
A common rock that occurs naturally in sedimentary rocks formed under heat and pressure from sediments in ocean salt water or by evaporation. Two of the nutrients used by plants from gypsum are sulfur and calcium.
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H

habit
the general shape or outline of a plant
haft
1. a narrow base or winged-like stalk of some petals, 2. in an Iris flower the upper part of the falls that connects to the rest of the flower, the shoulders next to the beard
haft
the handle of a tool
hairy
1. with long hairs, 2. pubescent
haploid
1. the n chromosome number stage, 2. having one sets of chromosomes
hardiness
1. the resilience of a plant to cold, draught, disease, etc., 2. hardy
hardwood
timber from broad leaved trees, 2. opposite softwood
hardwood cuttings
1.cuttings taken from the mature wood of trees and shrubs, 2. cuttings taken from conifers in the fall in early winter or deciduous plants when they are dormant
hardy
1. the ability of a plant to with stand the cold, draught, heat or other environmental factors of an area, 2. hardiness
haustoria
1. root-like suckers of parasitic plants, 2. Example of plants that have haustoria: False Toadflax (Comandra umbellata)
head
1. a flower with a densely packed cluster of stalkless flowers, 2. capitulum
heart-shaped
1. shaped like a heart, 2. chorate
heartwood
1. the inactive, deadwood at the center of a tree or a branch, no longer conducts water but does provide support, 2.the center portion of a trunk, made of secondary xylem that is dark color and inactive
heath
sandy, acid, peaty soils
heaving
1. the process of plants being lifted out of the soil during the winter time by the alternation of freezing and thawing, 2. commonly occurs in late planted material that hasn't had the chance to root in
hedge
1. barrier or fence formed by bushes or small trees growing together, 2. a closely planted row of shrubbery
heel
1. a small piece of bark and wood attached when a shoot is pulled from the parent plant
heeling in
1. covering the base or roots of a plant with soil or mulch for a short time, 2. temporarily storing plants in a layer of mulch
heirloom
1. a plant or seed variety that has been passed down through generations, 2. antique or old varieties
helicoid
coiled like a spiral or helix
helmet
hood
heliotropism
1. A term describing the bending of plants towards sun light. Phototropism has replaced this term since plants also bend towards artificial light. 2. a type of tropism
hemi
meaning half
hemisphere
shaped like half a sphere
Hepaticophyta
A plant division consisting of nonvascular plants commonly called Liverworts. There are about 8,000 species of these distributed throughout the world.
hepaticous
liver colored
herb
1. one whose aerial stems are soft and succulent without appreciable parenchymatous xylem tissue, 2. a plant not woody in texture
herbaceous
soft, green containing little woody tissue
herbaceous cuttings
cuttings taken from a herbaceous plant
herbaceous plant
in general a soft stemmed plant, non-woody plant
herbicide
a chemical used to kill vegetation
hesperidium
1. fleshy berry-like fruit with a hard rind, 2. Orange, lemon, lime
heterostylic
flowers with styles of different lengths in the same species
heterozygous
where both genes of a gene pair are different therefore the plant will not breed true
hilum
the scar of a seed at its point of attachment
hip
1. fruit or seed pod of a rose, 2. cynarrhodion, 3. Examples: Rose (Rosa)
hippocrepiform
in the shape of a horse shoe
hirsute
1. covered with coarse dense hairs, rought to the touch, 2. pubescent with short stiff hairs
hirsutulous
1. slightly hirsute, 2. diminutive of hirsute
hirtellous
slightly hirsute
hispid
covered with stiff, dense hairs,
hispidulous
1. slightly hispid, 2. diminutive of hispid
hoary
covered with short whitish or grayish hairs
hollow
1. pith with a central cavity, 2. an opening in a woodland, 3. a small circular valley
hooded
arching over and partially concealing
horns
1. a tapering projection resembling the horn of a cow, 2. found on the inside of some types of Milkweeds, 3. long pointed growths protruding unpward from the ends of the beards in Iris flowers
Hornworts
A primitive nonvascular plant in the plant kingdom. Grouped together with the 2 other divisions of nonvascular plants called Bryophytes. The name comes from the that their mature sporophytes resemble miniatures cattle horns. Found mostly growing in moist shaded areas.
horsetail
A primitive plant that is a member of the plant division Sphenophyta and genus Equisetum. Also know as scouring rushes. Seedless with primitive leaves and ribbed stems that contain silica.
hortensis
a type of hydrangea inflorescence also called mophead
host
a plant that a parasitic plants derives it's nourishment from
humifuse
spreading along the ground
humistrate
lying on the ground
humus
1. the loose, crumbly material that is formed from the decaying of organic matter, 2. the finale stage of organic matter being broken down in the soil
husk
1.tough outside covering of a fruit or seed, 2. the shell, 3. Example: Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata)
hyalescent
somewhat hyaline
hyaline
1. thin, membranous transparent or translucent, 2. An example is Hyaline Hyphomycetes a conidial fungi which are not darkly pigmented, colonies may be colorless or brightly colored
hybrid
the offspring resulting from a cross between different varieties, supspecies, species or genera
hypanthium
A cup or tube bearing floral parts above the base, and often above the top, of the ovary of a flower and many times encloses the pistils
hypocoty
1. lower part of the stem below the cotyledon, 2. axis of the embryo below the cotyledon, 3. the stem of the seedling between the roots and the cotyledons
hypogeal
1. a type of seed germination in which the seed leaves stay below the ground, 2. cotyledons stay below the ground
hypogynous
the sepals, petals and stamens are attached to the receptacle of the flower below the ovary
 
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imbricate
1. scales which over lap like shingles, 2. valavate (opp)
imperfect flower
An unisex flower that has an androecium (stamens) or a gynoecium (pistils) but not both the reproductive organs in the same flower.
incised
1. irregularly, deeply and sharply cut, 2. Examples: Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)
include
1. not protruding, 2. exserted (opp)
increase
1. new fans growing from the side of a rhizome, 2. a term used in the culture of Iris
indehiscent
a fruit which does not split or open to release the seed, corn, rice, hazelnut, etc.
indehiscent dry fruits
fruits that do not split open at maturity
indeterminate (opp. determinate)
1. plants whose stems can grow indefinitely such as an indeterminate tomato plant which has no predicted height
indeterminate inflorescence
an inflorescence in which the lower or outer flowers bloom first
indigenous
1. plants native to an area, 2. where they are naturally found, 3. not exotic or alien
indumentation(indumentum)
1. occurrence of hairs or down on a plant, 2. wooly or pubescence
indurate
hardened
inequilateral
with unequal sides0
impressed
1. as if marked by pressure, 2. furrowed
inferior
1. attached beneath, 2. superior (opp)
inferior ovary
when the ovary is beneath the point of attachment of the other floral organs
inflated
swollen or expanded
inflated calyx
1.calyx inflated to form a ballon-like structure, 2. Example: Flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum )
inflorescence
1. a cluster of florets creating a flower, 2. types are composite head, corymb, cyme, panicle ,spike, spadix, raceme, umbel,
infra
1. a prefix meaning below, within
inorganic
1. minerals, 2. not natural or artificial. 2. composed of material other than animal or plant matter. 3. opp. organic
inrolled
1. involute, 2. rolled or curled inward
insect
1. a small invertebrate animal, 2. the body is divided into segments
insect trapping leaves
modified specialized leaves of insectivorous plants that have the ability to trap and digest insects
insecticide
a chemical used to kill insects
insectivorous
1. plants which use insect trapping leaves to capture and digest insects to supplement their nitrogen requirement, 2. plants such as Bladderwort, Venus Fly Trap, Pitcher Plant, etc.
integer
entire
integerrimus
1. totally free of marginal divisions, 2. quite entire
internodal prickles
prickles that occur between the nodes on a stem
internode
the space between two nodes
introduced
Plants that have been accidentally or deliberately brought to a region. These plants were not part of the pre-settlement flora of the region.
introse
1. directed inward, 2. turned towards the inside
invasive
1. plant species are plants that quickly invade an area, 2. a species that is invasive is one that has been introduced and become a pest in its new location, spreading (invading) by natural means.
invertebrate
an animal lacking a backbone
involucel
1. a secondary involucre, 2. diminutive of an involucre
involucral
of the involucre
involucrate
having an involucre
involucre
1. a whorl of bracts that are closed underneath a flower or inflorescence, 2. any structure that surrounds the base of another structure, 3. example: Teasle (Dipsacus sylvestris)
involute
1. with the margins rolled inward toward the upper side, 2. revolute (opposite)
iridescent
1. displaying many colors, 2. Example: Persian Shield Plant (Stobilanthes dyerianus)
irregular flower
1. zygomorphic flower, 2. a flower in which all parts are not similar in size
isadelphous
with diadelphous stamens of equal number in each bundle
Isoetes
1. genus for Quillworts, 2. found in the plant division Lycophyta
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J

jacket
1.the outer coating or covering of a potato, 2. the skin or epidermis
jag
a sharp division or clef in a leaf margin
joint
1. a node, 2. a point on the stem from which the bud grows
jointed
having nodes or joints
Jonquil
1. a name often misused to for Daffodils, 2. division VII of Daffodils called Jonquilla Daffodils, 3. a type of Daffodil
Jonquilla
a division of Daffodils
jugate
having leaflets or leaves in pairs
jugum
a pair of opposite leaves
junciform
rush-like in form
juvenile
A distinctly immature stage in the development of certain plants. Many parts of the plant differ from the adult form. Common examples are English Ivy, Pothos, etc.
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K

karyogram
a picture of all the chromosomes of an individual arranged in homologous pairs
karyotype
1. all of the chromosomes within a nucleus, 2. the physical appearance of the chromosomes, including number, shape, size, etc.
keel
1. a form similar to the bottom of a boat, united to form a keel, 2. bottom joined petals of some leguminous flowers, 2. a projecting rigid
keeled
1. ridged like the keel of a boat, 2. having a keel
kelps
a type of brown algae
kernal
1. edible part of a nut, 2. a seed within a hard shell
key
key fruit
key fruit
1. small indehiscent fruit with a wing, 2. samara
kill back
the death of the upper portion of a plant, the roots remaining may send up new shoots
kingdom
1. the second highest step in the classification system of living organisms, 2. the kingdoms are:plant, animal, true bacteria, fungi, archaebacteria and protista
knees
1. upward growing root of trees that grow in very wet soils allowing the roots to breath, 2. aerial roots, 3. pneumatophores
knees
a joint as in the stem of grass
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L

labiate
1. lipped, 2. applied to flowers with lips
lace
used to describe Iris flowers which are very frilled or have crimped serrations on the outer edges of the petals
lacecap
A type of hydrangea flower with a flat round flower head with centers of fertile flowers surrounded by outer rings of sterile flowers (ray flowers). Center flowers are not showy, however the outer rings of sterile flowers have showy sepals (sepalous clusters). 2. Examples of Hydrangea with lacecap flowers: Teller Blue Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla Blaumeise), Variegated Lacecap Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla Variegated)
lacerate
irregularly cut or clefted as if torn
laciniate
1. fringed, 2. jagged, 3. cut into narrow segments or lobes
lacuna
1. a cavity anywhere in a plant, 2. a large multicellular cavity, 3. a pit or a depression
lamina
another term for blade
lanate
1. wooly, 2. usually matted
lanceolate
1. lance shaped, 2. much longer than wide, 3. widest below the middle and tapering to the apex, 4. similar to ovate but narrower , 5. Example: Princess Flower (Tibouchina urvilleana ), Sanders Dracaena (Dracaena sanderiana ), Aglaonema (Aglaonema brevispathum hospitum), Giant Purple Hyssop (Agastache scrophulariaefolia), Bloodleaf (Iresine lindenii)
lateral
attached to the side
lateral branch
a branch originating from the side as opposed to the tip or apex
lateral bud
buds growing in the axil of the previous seasons leaf, axillary bud
lateral lobes
the lobes below the centre lobe
lateral meristem
area along the side (lateral) of a stem where cells divide
latex
1. the milky sap of plants, 2. Example: Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima ), Crown of Thorns (Euphorbia splendens), Rubber Tree (Ficus elastica). Benjamin Fig (Ficus bejamina)
laticifer
tubes or channels containing latex
lactiferous
1. milky, 2. having a latex sap
latifolia
1. broad leaved, 2. Example: Common Cattail (Typha latifolia)
layer
a stem that has been layered
layering
1. the development of roots on a stem while it is still attached to the plant, 2. an artificial or natural method of plant propagation
leader
a shoot growing at the apex or tip of a plant
leaf(pl. leaves)
the main organ of photosynthesis
leaf axil
where the petiole of the leaf attaches to the stem
leaf cutting
1. an asexual method of propagation using the whole leaf or parts of the leaf, 2. Examples: Sansevieria
leaf margin
edge of the leaf
leaf mold
composted leaves used to add organic matter to the soil
leaf primordium
a lateral outgrowth from the apical meristem that develops into a leaf
leaf scar
1. the scar left after a bud or leaf falls off a stem, 2. Examples: Washington Palm (2) (Washingtonia robusta)
leaf sheath
the lower part of a leaf which envelopes the plant, common in grass
leaf stalk
the petiole
leaf tendril
a tendril developed from the entire leaf primordium
leaf tip tendril
a tendril developed from the apex of a developing leaf
leaflet
1. division of a compound leaf. 2. a foliar element of a compound leaf, 2. Example: European Mountain Ash (Sorbus aucuparia)
leaflet tendril
a tendril developed from a single leaflet or several of the distal leaflets
leafy stipules
leaf-like green stipule that acts as foliage
leaves
plural form of leaf
legume
1. pod fruit of the pea and bean family (Fabaceae and other families), 2. a member of the legume family (Leguminosae)
leguminous
1. plants in the Leguminosae family, 2. pod forming, like a legume
lemma
outer bract of a grass flower
lenticel
a pore or break in the bark to allow the exchange of gases, aeration pore
lenticular
1. shaped like a bean, 2. shaped like a double convex lens
lichen
A symbiotic relationship of a fungus and alga living together in a thallus. The alga supplies the food for the fungus and thallus, while the fungus provides protection from the sun for the alga and produces a substrate that accelerates photosynthesis.
ligule
1. a membrane at the junction of the leaf sheath and leaf base, 2. common to many grasses
lime pitted
1. having a deposited of lime on the leaves, usually on the edges, 2. encrusted
limestone
A sedimentary rock consisting mostly of calcium carbonate, used in landscapes to make walls and walks. Often the source for the calcium carbonate is the remains of aquatic animals that have settled to the bottom.
limestone soils
soils whose origin is of limestone and is usually of a basic ph
line breeding
the practice of breeding from related seedlings of recrossing the progency of two parents,thus concentrating the good and the bad genes
linear
1. long and narrow leaf shape, sides almost parallel, 2. Example: Grass-Leaved Goldenrod (Euthamia graminifolia), Variegated Spider Plant (Chlorophytum comosum vittatum)
lips
1. labiate, 2. having two segments or projections such as in the flower of an Iris, Orchid, etc.
liquid fertilizer
1. a form of fertilizer that is in liquid form, 2. the nutrients are dissolved in water and applied to the plant in a liquid form.
Liverwort
A primitive nonvascular plant in the plant kingdom. Placed in the division Hepaticophyta and grouped together with the two other divisions of nonvascular plants called Bryophytes. It's name comes from the fact that early herbalists believed the flat thallus looked like a liver and it could be used to treat aliments of this organ.
lobe
a division of a leaf or calyx, cut to about halfway between the midrib and margin
lobed
having lobes
lobed seed pod
a seed pod with lobes that separate when dry
lobulate
with lobules
lobules
1. small lobes or a lobe- like subdivision of a lobe, 2. small outgrowths usually from the edge or margin of a lichens thallus
locule
1. a small cavity, 2. a cell of an ovary containing the ovules, 3. a cell of the anther containing the pollen
loculus
locule
lodicule
rudimentary scales at the base of the ovary of a grass plant flower
loment
a seedpod that is divided into segments and each segment contains a single seed
lustrous
1. shiny or glossy, 2. Example: Summersweet Clethera(Clethera alnifolia, Rusty Blackhaw (Viburnum rufidulum)
lutea
1. golden yellow, 2: Example: Lollypop Plant (Pachystachys lutea ) has golden yellow flowers
lycophyta
A division of vascular plants containing the Club Mosses (lycopodium) and Quillworts (Isoetes)
lycopodium
1. A group of primitive vascular plants that have simple roots, stems and leaves, 2. also known as Ground pine, Club moss and Christmas Pine, 3. member of the plant division lycophyta, 4. genus name for this group of plants
lysis
greek meaning loosening
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M

macro
1. prefix meaning large or long,
macracanthus
having large spines
macranthus
having large flowers
macrocarpus
1. large fruit, 2.Example Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa) referring to the large fruit (carpa)
macrocladous
having long branches
macrophyllus
having large leaves
macropodus
having a stout stalk
macrorrhizus
1. with large roots, 2. Geranium macrorrhizum has a large thick root system
macrospermus
having large seeds
macrostachyus
having long or large spines
macrurus
having a large tail
maculata
1. spotted, 2. Example: Wild Geranium ( Geranium maculatum), Lamium Pink Pewter (Lamium maculatum)
male
the part of the flower called the stamen
male flower
1. a flower having a stamen but lacking the pistil, 2. a staminate flower
manure
animal waste that is incorporated into the soil to improve the soil's fertility
manure tea
soaking manure in water and using this water as a liquid fertilizer for plants
Marchantia
A common thalloid type of Liverwort.
margin
the edge of a leaf, petal, etc.
mature
a later phase of growth characterized by flowering, fruiting, and a reduced rate of size increase
meadow
1. field where grass or alfalfa are grown to be made into hay, 2. a field with grass and often wild flowers in it
mealy bug
a sap sucking insect, forms masses of cotton-like material around themselves, mealy color from the waxy material around their body
megaspore
a spore that develops into a female gametophyte
meleagris
1. spotted, 2. Example: Guinea Hen (Fritilaria meleagris)
meristem
1. a region where cells actively divide and grow, 2. where plants roots grow (root tip), plants grow in length (stem tips) and woody plants in diameter (vascular cambium)
meristematic tissue
Cells or group of cells that have the ability to divide. In plants these tissues consist of densely packed small cells that can keep dividing to form new cells
meso
1. a prefix meaning middle, 2. of Greek origin
micorphyll
1.tiny scale like leaves, 2. a leaf having a single unbranched vein not associated with a leaf gap
microphylla
1. small leaved, 2. Example: Artillery Plant (Pilea microphylla )
microspore
a spore that develops into the male gametophyte
midrib
1. the central vein running from the petiole to the tip of the leaf, 2. the main vein of a leaf, 3. the central stem of a pinnate leaf to which the leaflets are attached
milky
having a white latex sap
mono
greek prefix meaning one
monocarpic
flowers only once than dies
monocot
1. plants that have only one seed leaf, 2. members of the following groups of plants are monocots, grasses, lilies, bromeliads, orchids, iris, etc.
monocotyledon
Having only one seed leaf.
monoecious
1, have unisex flowers (male and female) on the same plant, 2 Examples of monecious plants: Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)
monogeneric
1. a family containing one species, 2. monotypic,
monopetalous
having a single petal or the petals are united into one
monophyletic
derived from one single ancestral line
monopodial
the growth of the stem or the rhizome is not branching
monotypic
1. A taxonomic division that has only one subdivision, 2. Example:Sensitive Fern (Onoclea sensibilis) is a monotypic genus of the Onocleaceae family, the Gingko (Ginkgo biloba) is a monotypic, genus of the Ginkgoaceae Family.
monstrous
a type of fasciation in which the abnormal growth is forming from multiple points
moor
1. a boggy area of land usually peaty and dominated by grasses and sedges
mophead
1. A type of hydrangea flower when the sterile, showy flowers form more or less a solid head or dome. The nonshowy fertile flowers are inside the inflorescence., 2. hortensis 3. Examples of Hydrangea with mopheads: Hydrangea Endless Summer (Hydrangea macrophylla Endless Summer), Hydrangea (Hydrangea grandiflora),
morpho
shape
mor
1. humus formed under acid conditions , 2. forest humus that has formed a layer of organic matter that is distinctly different from the mineral layer of soil beneath
moss
a primitive seedless, nonvascular plant that is in the division Bryophyta
mottled
1. having spots or patches of color, 2. Example: Yellow Trillium (Trillium luteum)
mound layering
1. A form of layering that involves cutting the plant to the ground during the dormant period and than covering with soil. The new shoots will root and can be removed from the mother plant by division., 2. same as stool layering
mucilaginous
slimy
mucronatic
having a fine slender tip
mulch
1. any substance applied to the surface of the soil to conserve moisture, suppress weeds, decorative, etc., 2. can be organic or inorganic
multifid
with many narrow segments, clefts or lobes
mushroom
1. a term used to describe most types of fungus, 2. the physical habit of the fruiting body of a club fungus (Basidiomycetes)
mutant
1. the plant that posses the mutation, 2. a sport
mutation
a change in plant habit, leaf shape, fruit, flower, etc. of a plant caused by a change in the genetic material of the plant
multiple fruit
1. a fruit formed from a cluster of many ripened ovaries of a cluster of flower on the same inflorescence, the core will be the fleshy stem axis of the flower, 2. Examples: Pineapple (Ananas cosmosus) , White Mulberry (Morus alba)
mummy
a dried shriveled fruit
Myxomycetes
the subkingdom of Slime Mold
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N

naked
1. buds lacking protective scales, 2. flower lacking perianth, 3. lacking hairs, appendages or other structures
nana
1. small or dwarf, 2. used to describe a smaller version of a plant, 3. Examples: Silver Mound (Artemesia schmidtianna nana ), Dwarf Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris glauca nana), Japanese Garden Juniper (Juniperus procumbens nana), Blue Artic Willow (Salix purpurea nana)
napaceous
napiform
napiform
turnip shaped
Narcissus
the genus name for all the bulbous plants in the Amaryllis family
nascent
being formed
nastic movement
plants response caused but not directed by an external stimuli. Such as opening and closing of flower.
narrowly lanceolate
1. lanceolate leaves that are long and narrow, 2. Example: Cheddar Pink (Dianthus gratianapolitanus)
native
1. an indigenous species, 2. plants found naturally occurring in a given area
natural hybrid
a hybrid plant produced by natural causes in the native habitat of the plant
naturalized
an alien or exotic plant that has established itself in a given area
nivalis
latin referring to snow
nectar
a liquid produced by a flower to attract pollinators
nectary
a nector producing gland
needle
a narrow stiff leaf of a conifer
needle shaped leaves
leaves shaped like a needle
needle-like leaves
1. margins of the leaves are strongly rolled giving the appearance of a tubular leaf, 2. Examples Yucca
negative geotropism
a growth responce away from gravity, usually erect or up
negative tropism
a growth response (tropism) away from the stimulus
neglecta
in Iris flowers a blue or violet bitone
nervate
1. leaves having ribs, 2. arrangement of the foliar veins
nerve
1. the midrib of a leaf, 2. Example: Nerve Plant (Fittonia verschaffectii argyroneura)
nervure
one of the principle veins of a leaf
net veined
1. a net like network of veins, 2. reticulate, 3. Example: Red Veined Nerve Plant (Fittonia verschaffectii Red Veined)
neuration
the distribution of the nervures in a leaf
neuter
lacking functional stamens or pistils
neutral
neuter
neutral
1. a substance that has a ph reading of 7.0
neutral flower
sterile flower consisting of perianth without any essential organs
neutral soil
a soil with a ph of 7.0
nidulent
1. embedded within pulp, 2. within a cavity
nidus
1. means nest, 2. Example: Birds Nest Fern (Asplenium nidus)
nigra
1. black, 2. Example Austrian Pine (Pinus nigra) has dark bark
nitrogen fixation
The process by which atmospheric nitrogen is changed to ammonia by a diazotroph. A common diatrophic organism is rhyzobium bacteria.
nivea(ous)
white
nocturnal
1. flowers which open in the night and are closed during the day,2. Example of a nocturnal flowering plant, Old Man Cactus (Cephalocereus senilis)
nodal
at or pertaining to a node
nodal prickles
1. prickles that occur at the nodes on a stem, 2. Examples: Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum americanum)
nodding
1. to bend over, 2. Example: Nodding Onion (Alliums cernuum)
node
point of attachment to the stem of a bud, leaf, side shoot, etc.
nodose
1. knobby, 2. knotty
nodular
having nodes, 2. having small nodes
nodule
a small swelling found on the roots of legumes
nodulose
diminutive of nodose
nog
the remaking stump of a branch after it has been cut from a tree
non-indigenous
1. plants that are not native to an ecosystem or to a geographical region; includes exotic, nonnative, transplanted species, 2. indigenous (opposite)
non-native
plants or animals originating in a part of the world other than where they are growing
non-tunicate bulb
a bulb without a naturally occurring tunic, has perennial roots
non-vascular
1. primitive plants lacking the vascular tissue of xylem and phloem, 2. nonvascular plants such as moss, hornworts and liverworts are called bryophytes
notched
1. indentation or v-shaped incision of a petal or leaf, 2. pinked, 3. Examples: Beefsteak (Iresine herbstii ), Malva (Malva alcea Fastigiata)
noxious
harmful
noxious weeds
plant species that have been designated noxious by law
NPK
Chemical symbols for the three main plant foods: N=nitrogen, P=phosphorus and K=potassium
nuciferous
bearing or producing nuts
nuciform
nut shaped
nucleus
The part of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic material of the organism. Very loosely considered the brain of the cell.
nude
naked
nudicaul
a leafless stem
nuisance plants
pest species of plants, may or may not be non-native or exotic
nuisance plant list
the official list of nuisance plants, usually designated by law
numerous
usually means more than ten
nut
1. a one seeded dry fruit in which the hard pericarp forms the shell, 2. Examples:walnut, hickory, pecan, etc., 2. Examples:Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata)
nutlet
1. diminutive of a nut, 2. a thick walled achene, 3. Example : Little Leaf Linden (Tilia cordata)
nux
a nut
nyconastic
movement or folding of leaves because of the absence of light
nyctigamous
flowering at night
nyctigamous
opening at night
nyctitropism
1. leaves of a plant changing position at night, 2. reaction of leaves to the absense of light, 3. Examples of leaves that close at night, Prayer Plant, Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica)
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O

ob
prefix indicating the inverse
obocordate
1. like cordate but the notch is at the apex and the tip is cordate
obolanceolate
1. broadest above the middle tapering to the base, 2. inversely lanceolate, 3. Example: Blue Artic Willow (Salix purpurea nana)
oblate
1. shorter from the base to the apex as opposed to the middle, 2. flattened at the poles
oblique
1. commonly called lopsided leaf bases, one side of the base is larger that the other, 2 Example: Dragon Wing Begonia (Begonia x hybrida)
oblong
1. a shape that has parallel sides and between two to four times longer than broad, commonly used to describe a leaf, 2. Example: Gold Variegated Salvia (Salvia officinalis)
oblong-orbiculate
a shape that is basically oblong that is almost as long as wide and appearing nearly round, commonly used to describe a leaf
oblong-ovate
a shape that is oblong but the sides curve in at either end, commonly used to describe a leaf
obovate
1. a shape the is basically ovate in outline but with the attachment at the narrow end, commonly used to describe a leaf, 2. like ovate but larger toward the distal end, 3. Example : Summersweet Clethera (Clethera alnifolia), American Smoke Tree (Cotinus obovatus)
obovoid
a shape similar to a egg with the stem at the narrow end, commonly used to describe leaves, fruit and petals
obpyriform
a shape roughly pear shaped with the stem at the narrow end
obscure
not easily made out
obsolescent
1. in the process of disappearing, 2. almost obsolete, 3. an organ that is still evident but not functional
obsolete
1. no longer functional, 2. gone
obotruncated
1. decapitated, 2. head removed
obtuse
1. blunt or rounded at the end or tip, 2. when a leaf or petal is rounded at the apex or base
obverse
when a leaf is narrower at the point of attachment than at the apex
occidentalis
1. western, 2. Examples: Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) White Cedar (Thuja occidentalis)
ochrea
1. a tubular sheath formed by the fusion of two stipules at a stem node, 2. a characteristic of the Polygonacea family, 3. ocrea
ocrea
ochrea
odd pinnate
odd pinately compound
odd pinnately compound
1. a pinnately compound leaf with an odd number of leaflets, 2. Example: Box Elder (Acer negundo)
odorata
1. fragrant, 2. Example: Sweet Violet (Viola odorata)
offset
1. a side-shoot growing from the mother plant, usually below the surface and will develop its own roots while still attached, 2. Example: Aloe vera (2)(Aloe vera)
offshoot
1. a side-shoot or branch, 2. same as offset but mainly applied to branches or stems rather than the main rootstock
old garden rose
types of garden roses that existed before 1867
oleraceae
1. latin for vegetable , 2. Example: Portulaca (Portulaca oleraceae)
oligo
a prefix meaning few
onion set
a set
open pollination
1. wind pollinated, 2. pollination by natural means
opposite
attachment of leaf or branch at a node at opposite sides of the stem
opportunistic
1. plants that will colonize a given area and can become dominate and lower bio diversity, 2. the colonization of an area by these plants many times is short lived
orbiculate
1.almost circular in outline, 2. disc shaped
order
the forth step in the classification system of living organisms
ordure
1. anything unclean, 2. dung, manure, etc.
organ
a plant part with a specific function such as a root, leaf, flower, etc.
organelle
small organs of a cell
organic
1. compounds containing carbon derived from decomposed animals or plants usually originates as a living organism, 2. opp. inorganic
organic matter
1. the material derived from the decaying of vegetative material, animal manures, woody material, etc. 2. makes up 5% by volume of good natural soils, provides the soils with a source of nutrients, food for soil organisms, helps builds soil structure, etc.
osier
any type of willow whose twigs are used for baskets, furniture, etc.
osier bed
a place where osiers (willows) grow and are harvested
osmunda
A growing media component made from chopping the dried stems of certain species of ferns. Used in Orchid or epiphytic mixes.
osmunda fibre
see osmunda
out crossing
breeding outside a pure line, introducing fresh genes to try to create a different breeding line
outcrop
a section of underlying rock stratum that is exposed to the surface
oval
1. twice as long as broad, 2. widest at the middle, both ends rounded, 3. Example: Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarapa)
ovary
1. found at the base of the pistil and contains the ovules, 2. part of the pistil of a flower
ovate
1.egg shaped leaf similar to oval, 2. leaf widest toward the base or below the middle and attached at the widest end, 3. Examples: Balsam Popple (Populus Balsmifera), Silver Plectranthus (Plectranthus argentatus), Japanese Lilac (Syringia reticulata), Vernal Witch Hazel (Hamamelis vernalis)
a leaf of ovate shape with a cordate base
oviod
egg shaped, applying to three dimensional objects like a seed
ovulate
Since the flowers of a conifer lack pistils this is the seed-producing flower.
ovule
1. the body which will contain the seed after fertilization, 2. egg containing unit of the ovary, seed develop here after fertilization
ovulum
an ovule
own root
1. a plant that grows on its own roots propagated from cuttings or seeds rather than grafting, 2. often applied to roses
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P

pachy
thick
pachycarpous
having large thick fruit
pachycladous
having thick branches
pachyphyllous
with thick leaves
pachycaul
having a swollen base to the stem
pad
referring to the flattened stem (cladode) of a Cactus, especially Oputia
pagina
a flat surface
paired
occurring in twos
palate
the raised appendage on the lower lip of the corolla which completely or partially encloses the throat
pale
a pointed piece of wood used as a fencing stake
pale
a bract protecting the flower in a spikelet of grasses
palea
a scale on a fern leaf or stem
paleaceous
chaffy in texture or chaff-like
paleontology
the study of extinct plants and animals
palmate (ly)
1. radiating in a fan-like fashion from a common point as in palmate compound leaves or palmately veined, 2. in the form of a hand where as the petiole is the arm, radiating point the wrist and the digits are the veins or leaflets, 3. Example: Washington Palm (Washintonia robusta)
palmately compound
1. compound leaf where the leaflets attach to one point on the apex of the petiole, 2. Examples: Bottle Brush Buckeye (Aesculus parviflora), Lupines Minarette (Lupines hybrid)
palmately lobed
1. The lobes of the leaf are divided from a central point, 2. leaflets radiating out from a common point, 3. Example: Castor Bean ( Ricinus communis ), Japanese Maple (Acer palmatum)
palmately trifoliate
having three leaves joined at the apex of the petiole
palmate venation
1. the veins originate from the base of the leaf and radiate out, like the fingers of a hand, radiating out from the wrist, 2. Example: Hollyhock (Alcea rosea)
palmatifid (palmatified)
a leaf cut palmately about halfway to the leaf-stalk
palmatipartite
a leaf cut palmately but separated nearer than halfway to the leaf-stalk
palmatisect
a leaf palmately cut almost to the leaf-stalk
palynology
study of fossil pollen and spores
pan
1. a shallow dish, 2. in general a flower pot which the height is about half the diameter
pan
a compacted horizontal layer of soil
pandurate
in the shape of a fiddle
panduriform
pandurate
panicle
1. an indeterminate inflorescence that is highly branched, 2. a branched raceme, 3. Examples: Horsechest Nut (Aesculus hipposcastranum), Bottlebrush Buckeye (Aesculus parviflora), Lilac (Syringia)
paniculate
1. arranged in a panicle, 2. bearing panicles
pannose
covered in smooth dense felt-like fur-like hairs
papillate
covered in minute, glossy, rounded projections
papillea (pl. papillae)
usually a small rounded protuberance
papilionaceous
1. flowers with a banner petal, two winged petals, and two connate, keel petals, 2 .leguminous flowers, 3. Examples: White Wild Indigo (Baptisia alba var macrophylla), Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)
papilio
latin for butterfly
pappus
1. a mass of feathery hairs, bristles, scales, etc. found attached to seeds that can assist in their wind dissemination, 2. Example: Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense)
papula(e)
a small pimple-like projection on a plant, usually referring to the stem
papulose
papillate
papyraceous
paper-like or paper thin
par
Greek, besides
parasite(-ic)
A plant that unites organically with another and derives nutrition directly from the host plant.
parallel venation
veins run parallel with each other, common in monocots, grass, orchids, iris, Lily family, etc.
parenchyma
1. thin walled undifferentiated cells. 2. makes up pith, soft tissue of fruit, cortex, etc.
paripinnate
1. a pinnate leaf in which all of the leaflets are paired, 2. evenly pinnate
paroecious
A bisexual plant in which the male and female reproductive organs are found on the same flower.
parrot
1. a class of tulips, 2. Example: Parrot Tulips (Tulipa Parrot)
parted
1. cut or divided not quite to the base, 2. deeply cleft
parthenocarpy
1. production of a fruit without setting seed, 2. seedless fruit
parthenogenesis
development of an egg cell into an embryo
parson (greek)
1. leek, 2. Chives (Allium schoenprasum)
patella
saucer-shaped apothecium, can be found in Fungus or Lichens
patch
1. a small piece of ground often attached to the cottage or farm, 2. an area where a group of plants are growing
pathogen
An organism such as a virus, bacteria, fungus that has the ability to a disease.
pathology
the study of diseases
pea gravel
pea stone
peastone(pea stone)
gravel either rounded or broken with a diameter of about 3/8 of an inch or the size of a pea
peat
1. Peat is made of incompletely decomposed plant remains, which accumulate in waterlogged soils over thousands of years. It occurs because the natural processes of decay are prevented by the acidic water logging and depleted oxygen, 2. although not totally correct it is interchanged with peat moss .
peat block
peat removed from a bog in blocks
peat bog
1. Any of certain other wetland areas, such as a fen, having a peat substrate.
peat moss
1. a brown fibrous material that is the main component of many growing media's, made from partially decomposed plants, has a high water holding capacity, acid in ph, low in nutrients, 2. sold in compressed bales or loose bags and used as a soil conditioner
peat pot
a rottable growing container, made of peat moss that is directly planted into the soil
pectinate
set with projections like the teeth of a comb
ped
1. a natural unit of soil structure, 2. units of soil structure that are separated from each other by natural planes of weakness
pedate
the lateral two lobes of a palmately divided leaf are two cleft
pedicel
1. the stalk of a single flower in a clustered, 2. the stalk of afloret in an inflorescence
pedicel tendril
a tendril developing from a pedicel
pedigree
1. a family tree, 2. an ancestor line
peduncle
the stalk or stem of a flower, the flower maybe single or in an inflorescence
peduncle tendril
a tendril developing from a peduncle
peltatus (-a,-um)
1. shield shaped, 2. attached to the lower surface away from and not at the margin, 3. Examples: May Apple (Podophyllus peltatum) , Nasturium (Tropaeolum majus)
pendant
pendulous
pendent
pendulous
pendulous(-a)
1. dropping, dangling, hanging, etc. 2. Examples: Fuchsia (Fuchsia hybrid), Fuschia (Fuchsia triphylla), Weeping White Pine (Pinus strobus pendula), Bleeding Heart (Dicentra spectabilis)
penniform
feathery
pensile
pendulous, hanging down
pentamerous
having five parts or members
pepo
1. a large many seeded berry with a hard epicarp, 2. Examples: melon, cucumber, gourds, pumpkin, etc.
perennial
1. plant that lives for more than two years, 2. plant that can live indefinitely after flowering
perfect flower
1. when the stamen (androecium) and pistil (gynoecium) are found on the same flower, 2. a flower that contains both male and female reproductive parts, 3. bisexual
perfoliate
1. where the bases of two opposite leaves wrap completely around the stem, 2. Example: Cup Plant (Silphinum perfoliatum)
pergola
1. a structure with open wood-framed roofs, supported by regularly spaced posts and often covered with plants, 2. provides for a shaded walkway or passageway, 3. Examples: (1)
perianth
1. a collective term for all the sepals and petals of a flower, 2. a collective term for the calyx and corolla of a flower
pericarp
1. wall of a ripened ovary, 2. the outer skin of a fruit
perlite
1. a white, light , dusty component of growing media's, made from volcanic lava, 2 neutral to basic in ph, no nutrients, holds three to four times it's weight in water
perula
perule
perulate
1. with a perule, 2. scale bearing as in a scaly bud
perule
a leaf bud scale
pes
foot
petaloideus(-a,-um)
petal-like
petals
1. member of the inner set of floral leaves, 2. non-reproductive part of a flower, colored or white and serving to attract pollinators
petiolaris(-e)
has a leaf stalk (petiole)
petiolate
has a petiole
petiolatus (-a,-um)(opp sessile)
has a leaf stalk (petiole)
petiole
1. stalk or stem of a leaf, 2. usually an extension of the central rib of the leaf
petiolule
stalk of a leaflet of a compound leaf
petrification
the process of turning wood into stone
petrified wood
wood that has been turned into stone by the process of petrification
persistent
1. remaining attached after other similar parts are normally dropped, 2. Example: Red Oak (Quercus rubra) leaves are persistent
ph
1. a measurement of acidity, 2. a mathematical expression of the amount of hydrogen ions per liter of distilled water, 3. a scale where a substance that measures more than 0 and less than 7 is acid, 7.0 being neutral and greater than 7 to 14 being basic
phenotype
the visual, physical appearence of a plant regardless of genetics
phloem
1. a vascular tissue, 2. transports nutrients through the plant
photo
light
photomorphogensis
1. how light effects the development of a plant, 2. photomorphogenic responses are most obvious in germinating seedlings but light affects plant development in many ways throughout all stages of development 2. photo-light, morpho-shape, genesis-beginning
photosynthesis
The process by which a plant takes in carbon dioxide from the air, water from the soil, using the energy from light to create a sugar called glucose and oxygen is given off.
photosynthesizing
cells or organisms that carry out the process of photosynthesis
phototropism
1. A growth movement (tropism) by which plants bend towards a light source. Stems exhibit a positive phototropism where as roots exhibit a negative phototropism 2. heliotropism, 3. Example: Parkers Variety Yarrow (Achillea filipendulina), Cheddar Pinks (Dianthus gratianapolitanus)
phyllo
prefix meaning leaf
phyllocad
1. a flatten stem that looks and functions like a leaf, 2. cladode
phyllode
1. like a leaf, 2. a flattened extended petiole that resembles the blade of a leaf, 3. cladophyll
phyllotaxy
arrangement of leaves on a stem or on an axis
phylogeny
race pedigree
physical scarification
the process of modifying the hard impervious seed coat to allow water to inter the seed (scarification)by nicking, sanding etc. the seed
phyto (Greek)
meaning plant
phytogenetics
the study of plant genetics and breeding
phytogeography
the biogeography of plants
phytotheoraphy
using plants of medicinal value as a cure for an illness or aliment
phytopathology
the study of plant diseases
phylum
the second largest division of the classification system of living organisms
picta (pictum, pictus)
1. painted, often variegated, 2. Example: Croton (Codiaeum variegatum pictum), Japanese Painted Fern (Athyrium nipponicum pictum)
pigment
colored chemicals found in plants, many have specific functions for the physiology of the plant
pinked
notched
pinetum
woody plant collection emphasizing conifers
pilose
1. when the surface of a leaf or other structures has sparse, soft straight hair, 2. shaggy
pin
a heterosylic flower with fairly long styles and and short stamens
pin-eyed
in Primulas, when in a flower where the female style and stigma are visible in the throat or center are above the stamens
pinna
a leaflet
pinnate (pinnatum, pinatus)
1. a leaf with the leaflets or lobes arranged on both sides of the axis or rachis in pairs, 2. Examples: Box Elder (Acer negundo), Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra), American Elder (Sambucus canadensis)
pinnately compound
1. compound leaf with the leaflets arranged along each side of a common axis, midrib or rachis, 2. Examples: Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica)
pinnately lobed
a leaf with the lobes arranged pinnately
pinnately trifoliate
1. compound leaf with three leaflets, Example: Three Flowered Maple (Acer triflorum)
pinnate venation
1. a leaf with the veins arranged on both sides of the main vein, usually in pairs, 2.Example: Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var tomemtosa), Korean Mountain Ash (Sorbus alnifolia)
pinnatifid
1. pinnately lobed half the distance or more to the midrib but not reaching the midrib, 2. Example: Philodendron Xanadu (Philodendron xanadu), Sensitive Fern (Oneclea sensibilis )
pinnatilobate
having pinnately arranged lobes
pinnatisect
pinnately clefted to the midrib
pinnule
1. the pinnate division of a pinna (leaflet) in a bipinnately compound leaf
pisifera (pisiferous)
literally pea bearing or having things in the shape of a pea
pistil
female part of the flower, made up of stigma, style and ovary
pistillate flower
1.a flower lacking a stamen, 2. a female flower, 3. Example:Rhizmatous Begonia (2) (Begonia rhizomatous )
pit house
a greenhouse in which the walls are buried in the ground
pith
1. parenchyma tissue at the center of the stem, surrounded by the central cylinder of vascular tissue 2. spongy tissue in the center of stems of dicotyledonous plants
pithy
a term sometimes used descibing a plant with a large pith
plaited
from latin plicare meaning to fold as in leaves or branches
plantlet
1. tiny plants produced on the leaves, tips of stolons, etc., can drop off and root or root while still attached, 2. Example Piggy Back Plant (Tolmiea menziesii ), Spider Plant (Chlorophytum General Data) 3. viviparous
plant support frames
a generic term for any of a number of wire grids and frames that are used to support plants, 2. related names, English plant supports, grid plant braces
plasmodium (pl plasmodia)
multinucleated masses of protoplasm lacking cell walls
plasmolysis
1. the loss of turgor pressure, 2. a plant wilting, 3. loss of water in the cells of a plant and they shrink causing a plant to wilt
plastid
organelle in a plant cell that stores the plant's pigments
platanoides
1. like platanus or Sycamore, 2. Example: Crimson King Maple (Acer platanoides Crimson King)
platy structure
1. a form of soil ped (structure) in which the peds are laid flat on top of each other forming plate, 2. most common in compacted soils
plicata
in Iris flowers stitched margins of color on the rim of the petals usually having a white or yellow ground color
plicate
folded like a paper fan, such as the leaves of a palm
plume
1. feather-like erect inflorescence, 2. Examples:Astillbe have plume-like inflorescence,
pluvia
1. of rain, 2. flowers after a rain
pneumatophores
1. Slender, erect outgrowths from the roots of plants growing in very wet soil conditions, such as Mangroves. Being negatively geotrophic they can grow upward, 2. aerial roots, 2. knees
pod
1. any kind of dry dehiscent fruit, 2. outer protected shell around the seeds of legumes, 3. Example: Blue Wild Indigo (Baptissia australis )
podophyllus (-a, -um)
1. having a stout stalked leaves, 2. Example: May Apple (Podophyllum peltatum)
pollen
male sex cells of a plant, develops from a microspore
pollen grain
individual unit of pollen
pollen sac
area in anther where the pollen is produced
pollen tube
an outgrowth of the pollen grain that carries the pollen from the stigma to the ovule
pollinate
see pollination
pollination
1. transfer of pollen from the anther to the pistil in angiosperms, 2. in gymnosperms pollen transfer from a male cone to a female cone
pollinator
a term loosely used to describe organisms that pollinate
pollinia
a mass of fused pollen produced by many orchids
polgamous
when perfect flowers and staminate and or pistillate flowers are on the same plant
polychroma
many colors
polyclonal cultivar
a cultivar representing two or more distinct clones
polymorphic
1. many different shapes on the same plant, 2. Example:White Mulberry (Morus alba)
pome
1. A fleshy fruit, such as an apple, pear, or quince, having several seed chambers and an outer fleshy part largely derived from the hypanthium, 2. a fleshy fruit derived from an inferior compound ovary consisting of a modified floral tube surrounding a core, 3. Examples: Amerlanchier Autumn Brillance (Amelanchier x grandiflora Autumn Brilliance), Cotoneaster Blackburn (Cotoneaster apiculatus Blackburn), European Mountain Ash (Sorbus aucuparia)
pomaceous
pome-like
porandrous
with anthers opening by pores
positive geotropism
a growth response toward gravity usually down
positive tropism
a growth response (tropism) in the direction of the stimulus
post harvest dormancy
seeds that are dormant when collect but become viable after dry storage (seed dormancy)
post harvest physiology
science relating to fruit and vegetable storage and quality
potting soil
loosely used to describe a growing media for potting plants which may or may not have soil as one of it's components
pouch
a swollen, hollow sack shaped petal
powdery mildew
1. a form of fungus that attacks plants creating a powdery effect on the leaves, 2. a fungi belonging to the class Ascomycetes or Sac Fungus
PPAF
plant patent applied for
praecox
flowers early in the season
pratense
growing in meadows
precocious
premature flowering or fruiting
precocity
precocious
pre-emergent herbicide
a herbicide that is applied to the soil and it prevents the germination of weed seeds
premorse
ending abruptly
pricking-out
transplanting seedlings from a seed flat into a larger container, garden, nursery bed, etc.
prickle
1. sharp thorn-like out growth from the epidermis or bark, 2. Example: Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica), Teasle (Dipsacus sylvestris), Bed Straw (Galium aparine)
primary dormancy
conditions that occur within the seeds at the time of maturity that prevents germination (seed dormancy)
primine
the outer coat of an ovule
prisms
prismatic soil structure
prismatic
columnar, flat topped, six sided soil peds
primocane
a biennial shoot of a Raspberry, Blackberry, Gooseberry, or any other bramble
proboscis
long beak of an insect used to probe and obtain food
procumbens
1. trailing, 2. Example:Alleghany Pachysandra (Pachysandra procumbens), Zinnia Manadarin Orange (Sanvitalia procumbens )
procumbent(-a)
1. laying flat on the ground but not rooting at the nodes, 2.prostrate
projected
extending outward
prokaryotic
a cell or an organism that lacks a nucleus
proliferous
bearing plantlets or bulblets usually from the leaves
propagation
methods by which plants are increased in number by cuttings, seeds, division, layering, etc.
prophyl
first leaf on a shoot
prophyl tendril
a tenril developing from a prophyl
prop root
1. a supportive root growing from an above ground stem, such as in corn, Mangrove tree, 2. a type of adventitious root
prostrate
1. lays flat on the ground, 2. procumbent, 3. trailing
pseudo
1.false , 2. used as a prefix such as pseudopod (false pods or appendages as in Amoeba), pseudobulb (bulb like structures on certain species of Orchids), etc.
pseudobulb
1. bulb like in appearance but not a true bulb, 2.common in some types of Orchids
pseudocopulation
The attempt of males to copulate (mate) with the flowers of plants that look and smell like the female of the species.
psilotophyta
A division of primitive vascular plants called Whisk Ferns. The sporophytes have neither true leaves and lack roots. It consists of stems and rhizomes that are evenly forked.
pteris
1. fern, 2. Example Table Fern (Pteris cretica)
ptero
prefix meaning wings
Pterophyta
A plant division of primitiveseedless vascular plants. There are approximately 11,000 species. They all reproduce by spores and their leaves are called fronds.
pubens (um)
1. downy, 2. Example: Scarlet Elderberry (Sambucus pubens)
puberlulent
when the surface of a leaf or other structures are minutely pubescent
pubescent
covered with soft hair
puffball
1. a type of a fungus that forms a papery thin, dry skin, that when ruptured will puff a blast of spores into the air, 2. a fungi in the class Basidiomycetes or the Club Fungus
pulch
pretty
pulvinatus (-a,-um)
cushion-like
pumilus(-a,-um)
1.dwarf, 2. Examples:Picea pumila(Picea abies pumila), Creeping Fig (Ficus pumila)
punctatus (-a,-um)
1.spotted, 2.Example: Yellow Loosestrife (Lysimachia punctata) has spotted leaves
pungens
1. sharp-pointed, 2. Example: Colorado Spruce (Picea pungens), Colorado Spruce has sharp, spiny needles
puniceus (-a,-um)
reddish
purpuratus (-a,-en,-um)
1. purple, 2. Example: Purple Swedish Ivy (Plectranthus purpuratus)
purpurea
1. purple, 2.Example:Crimson Pygmy Barberry: ( Berberis thunbergii var atropupurea nana), a purple foliage Barberry, Purple Sage (Salvia officinalis purpurea), Purple Cone Flower(2) (Echinacea purpurea)
pycnoxylic
1. wood in which there is little or no parenchyma tissue among the xylem, 2. Examples are conifers and flowering plants, 3. (opp) mannoxlic
pyramidal
1. pyramid shaped, 2. cone shaped, 3. Example: Little Leaf Linden (Tilia cordata)
pyramidalis
1. pyramid-shaped, 2,Example: Pyramidal Arborvitae ( Thuja occidentalis pyramidalis)
pyrene
a fruit stone or a pit of a drupe or a druplet, a nutlet
pyrethrum
an insecticide made from the crushed flower heads of some Pyrethrum species such as Dalmatian Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) or Persian Chrysanthemums(2) (Chrysanthemum coccineum),.
pyriform(-e,-us)
pear-shaped
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Q

quadra (-tus, -um)
in four or fours
quadrangularis
having four angles
quadriauritus
having four ears
quadricolor
having four colors
quadridentatous
four-toothed
quadrifidus
cut into four
quadrifolius
four-leaved
quadripartus
parted four ways
quadripinnatifid
four times pinnately cleft
quadrifadiatus
has four flower rays
quadrivalvis
four-valved
quarternary hybrid
a hybrid derived from four different grandparental individuals
quercifolius (-a, -um)
have leaves like an Oak
quercinus (-a, -um)
relating to Oaks
quick dip
referring to treating cuttings with liquid rooting hormone as opposed to a dry rooting hormone
quienscence
when seeds will not germinate or other parts of the plant will not grow until the proper environmental conditions required are present
Quillworts
1. a primitive plant belonging to the genus Isoetes, 2. found growing in areas where they are partially submerged in water
quincunx planting
planting four young plants to form the corners of a square with a fifth plant at its center
quinone
a growth inhibitor
quite entire
1. totaly free of marginal divisions, 2. integerrimus
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R

raceme
1. a flower inflorescence similar to a spike except the flowers are on pedicels, 2. Examples: Tiarella Iron Cross (Tiarella cordifolia var. collinia Iron ), Fritilaria of Persia ( Fritilaria persica ), Black Cherry (Prunus serotina )
 
rachis
1. an axis of a pinnately compound leaf, 2. Example: Tiger Eyes Cutleaf Sumac ( Rhus typhina Bailtiger) , Japanese Painted Fern (Athyrium nipponicum pictum)
radial
of flowers with petals that radiate symmetrically from a common central point
radiate
to spread from a common central point
radical
1. basal leaves, 2. arising from or near the root, 3. pertaining to the root
radicant
rooting from the node of a stem or a leaf
radicel
1. a small root, 2. rootlet
radicicolous
the flower postioned directly on the crown of the root
radicle
the first embryonic root of a seedling that becomes its first primary root
radiculose
having many roots
radiospermic
1. having seeds that are rounded or ovoid, 2. (opp.)platyspermic
ramal
rameal
ramblers
a distinct type of rose with flexible canes and flower once a year on previous years canes
ramealj
pertains to branches
ramentaceous
with ramentum
ramentum
flattened scaly out growths on the epidermis of the stem and leaves of some ferns
ramulose
self branching
ramulus
a small branch
ramus(pl rami)
a branch
rank odor
foliage that exudes a bitter aroma
ray flowers
1. outer flowers of a composite head, 2. have strap-like petals made from the extended corolla, 3. Example: Zinnia (Zinnia elegans)
rebloom
a plant blooms at it's normal period and than produce another set of blooms usually after a period of rest. Many perennials will have a rebloom if cut back quick enough after flowering
rebloomer
a plant with two or more blooming periods
receptacle
the part of the flower stalk to which the flower parts are attached
recessive
1. an inherited trait not apparent in the plant, 2. this trait may appear in future generations
reclinatus (reclinate)(re
bent backwards, recling
rectifolius (-a,-um)
having erect ascending, upwards leaves
rectus (recta, rectum)
erect, upright
recumbent
lying flat along the ground
recurrent
a plant blooming in two or more seasons
recurvatus (-a,-um)
curved backwards
recurved
less of a bent backward curve than reflexed
redolent
1. strongly scented, 2. having a strong odor
refexed
1. bent downward or backward, as in reflexed petals, 2. Examples: Turks Cap Lily (2)(Lilium superbum)
regeneration
the growth of new tissue or organs to replace what was lost
registered
a plant cataloged with a International Register (IRA)
registrar
1. an international authority that catalogues cultivars names, 2. such as The American Hemerocallis Society (registers Daylilys), The International Ornamental Crabapple Society, (registers ornamental flowering Crabapples)
regma
a dry fruit that breaks into single-seeded parts each of which will split an release a seed
regular flower
actinomorphic
remontant
a plant that flowers in flushes
reni
prefix meaning kidney
reniform
kidney shaped
repand (-us)
1. having a slightly wavy margin, 2. undulating
repent
creeping, growing along or just below the surface of the soil
reproduction
the generation of new individuals either by sexual, asexual or vegetative means
reproductive structures
in plants the anther is the male reproductive structure and the pistil is the female reproductive structure
reptans
1. creeping or low, 2. Example:Ajuga (Ajuga reptans)
resprout
1. to regrow, produce more sprouts, 2. many plants will resprout after being cut
resupinate
flowers that grow upside down or inverted, like most Orchids
reticulate
1. the veins of a leaf form an interconnected network, 2. often called net veined
retrose
directed downward or backward, 2. antrose (opp)
revert
1. to return to its original stage, 2.Examples: Dwarf Alberta Spruce (Picea glauca conica), Diabolo Ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), Variegated Creeping Fig (Ficus pumila White Sunny)
revolute
1. when the margins of a leaf, petals, sepals, etc. rolls backwards towards the underside, 2. involute (opposite) 3. Example: Canadian Ginger (Asarum canadensis)
rhytidophyllus (-a,-um)
with wrinkled leaves
rhyzobium
A type of bacteria found growing in the root nodules of leguminous plants connected with the process of nitrogen fixation
rhyzoid
rhyzome
rhizoma
greek for root as in rhizome
rhizome
1. an underground horizontal running stem used for food and water storage, 2. a subterranean stem 3. Example: Rhizomatous Begonia (2)(Begonia rhizomatous ), Bearded Iris (Iris germanica)
rhizomorphous
root-like in appearance
rhizophyllous
1. having roots arising from the leaves, 2. rooting leaves, 3. Example: Sansevieria Propagation (Sansevieria)
rhizoplane
the surface of the root and the soil in contact with it
rhizoshere
the soil surrounding the root system of a plant
rhizotaxis
rhizotaxy
rhizotaxy
the type of arrangement of the roots on a plant
Rhizopus
black bread mold
rhodanthus (-a, -um)
with rose colored flowers
rhombic
diamond shaped
rib
ridge formed by the vein
rim
a projecting edge or flange
rind
thick outer skin of various structures such as fruit, peel , etc
riv
growing by a stream or river
robust
strong
rogue
to remove inferior plants leaving only those with the desirable features
root
1. an organ of a plant that anchors the plant, stores food and absorbs moisture and nutrients, 2. usually underground
root cutting
a section of a root that is used to produce a plant
root tuber
a tuberous root
rooting hormone
used to treat tips of cutting to help induce the formation of roots
rooting medium
a medium used to root cuttings in
rootlet
1. adventitious roots, 2. found on English Ivy (Hedera helix)
rootstock
1. simply stated an underground stem or rhizome, 2. the lower portion of a graft, 3. erroneously used to describe the crown and root system of a short plant
rosea(roseum, roseus)
pink, rose colored
rosette
1. a group of leaves radiating from the crown or the base of the plant, usually near the surface of the soil, 2. basal rosette, 3. Example: Hens and Chicks (Sempervivum tectorum )
rostellum
a short beak-like outgrowth on the stigma of certain flowers
rostrate
having a beak or beak-like in form
rostrum
a beak or a beak-like part
rosulate
in the form of a rosette
rot
to decay
rotund
1.round or rounded, 2. Example Marsh Marigold (1), (2), (Caltha palustris ), Arbian Wax Ivy (Cissus rotundifolia)
rounded
rotund
rounded teeth
1. crenate
rotundifolia
1. round leaves, 2. rotund, 3. Examples: Arbian Wax Ivy (Cissus rotundifolia)
rubra
1. red, 2. Example:Red Oak (Quercus rubra), Red Maple (Acer rubrum)
ruderal
weedy or growing in waste places
rudimentary
1. undeveloped, 2. vestigial, 3. imperfectly developed
rufose
reddish to reddish brown
ruffles
used to describe Iris flowers with bouncy, wavy or rolling form to the petals
rugose
1. wrinkled or corrugated, 2. Examples:Peperomia (1), (2) (Peperomia caperata)
rugulose
1. fine wrinkles, 2. finely rugose
runcinate
sharply cleft or pinnatifid with backward pointing segments
runner
1. a stolon, 2. a horizontal running stem
rupestris
growing on rocks
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S

sabulosa(sab-yoo-LOH-sa)
grows in sandy places
saccate
in the shape of a sac or pouch
sac fungi
fungus in the class ascomycetes
sagittate
leaves shaped like an arrow, roughly triangular with the basal lobes pointing downward or inward
salicarium
willow like
salicifolia
having leaves like a willow
salis
1. to spread or leap, 2. referring to willow
salverform
a flower form in which the corolla forms a long tube, the limbs spread out flat
salvia
1. latin name meaning helping, saving healing, 2. the genus Salvia often referred to as sages, 3. Examples: Salvia Black and Blue, Salvia Blue Bedder, Salvia Gold Variegated, etc. search for more Salvia in data base
samara
1. a one seeded winged achene, 2. an indehiscent winged fruit, 3. helicopter fruit, 4. such as seeds of Maple, Ash, Tree of Heaven, elm, etc
sanguineous(sanguinea, sanquineum)
1. blood-red, dark red, 2. Examples:Himalayan Cinquefoil (Potentilla atrosanguinea), Blood Root (Sanguinaria canadensis)
sap
1. the fluid or juice of a plant, 2. the soft layers of wood (sapwood) found between the bark and the heartwood of a tree
saponium
1. glycosides (often called natural detergents)with a distinct foaming characteristic usually found in the skin of the plant forming a waxing protective coating, 2. Example of a plant with saponium: Soapwort (Saponaria ocymoides)
saprophyte
1. a plant that decomposes organic matter and essential to the recycling of this material in the soil , 2. many fungi are saprophytes
saphros (Greek)
rotten
sapwood
1. the outer, lighter colored secondary xylem found between the vascular cambium and the heartwood, 2. the lighter area of secondary xylem that conducts the water up and down the stem of the plant
sarmentose
1. producing long flexible runners, 2. Examples of plants producing long runners: Stringy Stonecrop (Sedum sarmentosum)
sativus
cultivated
saxatilis
growing on rocks, 2. Example: Basket-of-Gold (Aurinia saxatilis )
sawed
1. serrated, 2. saw toothed
saw toothed
1. serrated, 2. sawed
scab
a fungal disease that leaves spots on foliage and fruit
scaberellate
diminutive of scabrous
scaberulous
diminutive of scabrous
scabrid
rough to the touch from the presence of short, stiff hairs or from the structure of the epidermis
scabridulous
diminutive of scabrous
scabrous
rough to the touch from short stiff hairs or from the structure of the epidermis
scalariform
like a ladder or in the shape of a ladder
scald
a burning of tissue from strong sunlight
scale
a sap sucking insect, forms a hard protective covering around its body which can resist the penetration of some insecticides
scales
1. small dry leaf or bract, 2. fleshy segments of a bulb, 3. the leaf-like structures surrounding and protecting a bud, 4. part of a coniferous cone
scalloped
1. leaves with rounded or crenate margins, 2. Example: Silver Plectranthus (Plectranthus argentatus)
scaly bulb
1. a bulb without a naturally occurring tunic and has perennial roots, 2. Examples:Lily bulb, Oxalis regnelli (1), (2)
scandent
1. climbing without the assistance of tendrils, climbing can be by the inter twinning of the stems of the plant around or in an among the object it is climbing on, 2 Example: Ellen Danica grape Vine (Cissus rhombifolia )
scape
1. a leafless flower stalk (peduncle) arising directly from the soil, 2. found on acaulescent plants, 2. Example:Streptocarpella (Streptocarpella saxorum)
scaphoid
boat-shaped
scapiform
scape-like
scapose
with flowers on a scape
scar
1. the hilum of a seed, 2. mark left on a stem after the leaf falls off
scarifier
a rake or an implement used to loosen the soil
scarious
1. thin, dry stiff and membranous often translucent, 2. chaffy in texture
scarification
1. the process of modifying the hard impervious seed coat to allow water to inter the seed, 2. can be physical or chemical scarification
scattered
not in any pattern or arrangement
schoinus(greek)
1. rush, 2. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
scientific name
1. latin name assigned by botanists to plants and accepted internationally, 2. common name (opp)
scimitar
1. a curved oriental saber; the edge is on the convex side of the blade, often used to describe the shape of leaves, 2. acinaciform
 
schizocarp
1. a twin fruit, 2. at maturity the dried fruit splits into two, one seeded segments, 3. examples: parsley, carrots, anise, caraway, dill, etc.
scion
a detached bud or shoot that is attached (grafted) to the rootstock of another plant
scorpulorum
1. found in rocky areas or cliffs, 2. Example: Blue Haven Juniper (Juniperus scopulorum Blue Haven)
scouring rush
A name given to unbranched horsetails. Deposits of silica are found in the stems, which made scouring material for early Americans.
scrambler
a plant that climbs without twinning or grasping in some way
scree
1. loose rock or debris, many times found at the base of hills or slope, 2. many plants are listed to grow in scree
screen
a tall hedge used to block a view
scrufy
a surface covered with bran like particles
scutate
like a small shield
secondary dormancy
a seed will again become dormant if after the after ripening unfavorable conditions occur (seed dormancy)
secondary phloem
food conducting tissue (phloem) formed by the vascular cambium
secondary xylem
water conducting tissue (xylem) formed by the vascular cambium
seed
1. fertilized and ripened ovule of a flowering plant containing, stored food and the embryo from which a new plant may developer, 2. a reproductive structure that was formed from the ripening of a ovule
seed capsule
consists of the exterior wall and inner cells of the ovulum after they have dried out, containing the seeds
seed coat
the covering or protective layer around a seed
seed dormancy
non germination resulting from conditions within the seed
seed head
any dry fruit that contains ripe seeds
seedless
1. plants that do not produce seeds and usually reproduce by spores, 2. parthenocarpy
seed leaf
a cotyledon
seed pod
1. a dried fruit containg seeds, 2. Example:Sunburst Hypericum (Hypericum frondosum ), Flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum)
seed purity
1. lack of weed and other undesired seeds in a unit of seed, 2. Many times measured in percent of mix
segment
a portion of a leaf that is divided but not compound
seismonastic movement
1. reaction of a plant to physical touch or shock, 2. similar to turgortropism 2. Example: Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica)
self
1. all parts of the flower are the same color, 2. in Iris flowers a uniform color of both the standards and the falls, 3. Examples:Tall Bearded Iris Pristine (Tall Bearded Iris), Dwarf Iris Fun Time (Dwarf Iris)
selfing
artificially pollinating a plant with it's own pollen
self-branching
shoots arising from most every node
self-clinging
plants which can support and climb by producing aerial roots or adhesive tendrils
self-colored
1. self, 2. all parts of the flower are the same color
self-fertile
plants capable of producing viable seed with their own pollen
self-incompatible
a plant not capable of producing viable seed with their own pollen
self-pollination
the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same flower
self-sterile
a plant not capable of producing viable seed with their own pollen
self-seeded
seedlings produced naturally
self-sown
1. plant starting from seeds that fell from or was blown in from a mother plant. 2. volunteer
Selaginella
1. A group of primitive vascular plants that have simple roots, stems and leaves, 2. also known as spike mosses 3. member of the plant division lycophyta, 4. genus name for this group of plants
semi
a prefix meaning half or partially
semi-chordate
partially heart shaped (chordate)
semi-hardwood
tissue of woody plants just after the flush of growth has taken place and the wood is partially mature
semi-hardwood cuttings
1. cuttings taken from woody broadleaf evergreen plant or deciduous plants from semi-hardwood
semi-ripe wood
semi-hardwood
semi-ripe wood cuttings
cuttings taken from semi-ripe wood
semi-tropical
plants growing in areas between tropical and temperate regions
semperflorous
1. flowering throughout the year, 2. Example: Wax Begonia (Begonia semperflorous)
sempervirens
1. evergreen, 2. Examples: Blue Oats Grass (Helictotrichon sempervirens ), Green Velvet Boxwood (Buxus koreana x sempervirens )
senescence
The changes between the maturity and death of plant or plant part. Leaves and fruits will end this period usually with abscission.
senescent
1. old, past its prime, 2. the leaves that fall off a deciduous plant in the fall
sensitive
1. responding to touch, 2. Example: Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica)
sepals
1. part of the floral calyx located at the base of the flower, 2. functions to protect the flower bud, to support the flower, attract pollinators, etc. 3. green or colorful, 4. Example: Beggars Tick (Bidens frondosa)
seploid
resembling or characteristic of a sepal
sepalous
referring to sepals
sepalous cluster
a cluster of sepals
septa
1. a septum, 2. cross wall, especially with regard to fungi and algae
septate
divided by partitions
septicidal
dehiscing through the septa and locules
septum
1. a partition of a fruit, 2. a partition or diving walls or ovaries
sericeous
1. silky, 2. when the surface of a leaf or other areas has fine and straight hairs, 3. appressed fine hair
serpentine layering
1. a form of layering similar to simple layering except more than one point is touching the soil or growing media, 2. same as compound layering
serrated
1. having teeth that point forward, 2. saw toothed, 3. Examples: Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var tomemtosa), Beggers Tick (Bidens frondosa)
serrulate
having very small teeth or serrations
sessile
1. attached directly to the base or stem without a stalk, 2. Example:Yellow Trillium (Trillium luteum)
sessile leaflet
a leaflet lacking a petiole
set
1. onions, shallots, potatoes, etc. used as seeds, 2. a slip or a shoot used for planting
seta
1. a bristle or bristle-like structure, 2. stalk of a moss capsule
setaceous
resembling or having abristle
setose
covered with bristles
setiform
shaped like a bristle
sevin
an insecticide
sexual reproduction
1. reproduction of new individuals by a seed, 2. the union of male and female gametes to form a seed
shag
skirt
shaggy
1. pilose , 2. covered with long rough hair
sheath
1. an elongated tubular structure surrounding an organ, 2. when the base of the leaf is wrapped around the stem such as in grass plants
shelf fungi
1. a type of fungus that grows horizontally from the bark of a tree or dead wood, 2. a fungi belonging to the class Basidiomycetes
shell
the hard outer case enclosing a nut or kernel of some fruits
shoot
1. a side branch 2. the growing portion of a plant, 3. a young branch or sucker
shoot tendril
1. a tendril developing from the shoots apical meristem, 2. a stem tendril
shovel pruning
digging up and discarding an unwanted plant from the garden
shrub
a woody plant with single or multiple stems and reaches no higher than around 15 feet
shuck
to husk or pod, as in removing the husk from sweet corn or removing the peas from the pod
shy flowering
1. refers to plants that produce few flowers. Often used to describe plants that readily flowers in natural conditions but produce few if any flowers when grown as an indoor plant or out of their natural conditions.
side-shoot
a lateral growth, branch, offset
sigmoid
S-shaped
signal
used to describe Iris flower with a spot pattern of different color on the falls just below the beard
silicle
1. a short silique, no more than twice as long as it is broad
silique
1. a dry fruit that splits along two sides and the seeds are borne on a central partition, 2. Examples: Penny Cress (Thlaspi arvense), Shepard's Purse (Capsella bursa pastoris)
silky
1. covered with short appressed fine straight hairs, 2. sericeous
simple
1. a leaf that is not compound consisting of (unless sessile) a petiole and a blade, 2. an unbranched inflorescence
simple fruit
fruit produced from a single flower that has a single ovary
simple layering
A method of propagation performed by bending a branch or stem to the ground and partially covering it with soil and it will root at this point
simple stipules
stipules located on the sides of the petiole
sinensis (sinense)
1. from China, 2. Example the species plant of Miscanthus Zebrinus was from China (Miscanthus sinensis Zebrinus)
single flower
1. one flower borne at the end of a peduncle, 2. Examples: Narcissus Barret Browning (Narcissus Division 03), Tulip Flowering Ballerinna (Tulipa Lily flowering), Shasta Daisy Becky (Leucanthemum Becky)
sinnuate (sinuatus)
having strong wavy margins
sinus
1.the area between two lobes, 2. a clef or recess between two lobes
skirt
1. collection of dead leaves wrapping around the trunk of a palm tree, 2. Example: Washington Palm (Washingtonia robusta)
slime flux
1. a bacterial disease causing foul-smelling and unsightly seepage of sap from the trunk of a woody plant trunk, 2. wet wood
slime mold
A member of the Kingdom Protista and subkingdom Myxomycetes. A creeping mass of clear plasmodium that eat microscopic organisms such as bacteria and fungal spores and hyphae. Not a Fungus but many times associated with this Kingdom.
slip
a traditional term often used to describe a cutting
sludge
processed sewage often used as or to make fertilizers
smooth
1. an entire leaf edge, 2. a leaf edge that is smooth lacking teeth , 3. not warty or rough
smut
a disease caused by fungus
sobole
1. a slender short rhizome-like stem, 2. an under ground stem producing roots and shoots
soboliferous
producing suckers or lateral shoots from the ground, usually applied to shrubs or small trees.
soft spine
1. a soft flexible spine, 2. Example: Aloe vera (Aloe vera), Variegated Corncob Plant (Euphorbia mammillaris variegata)
softwood
1. timber from conifers, 2. opposite hardwood
softwood cuttings
cuttings taken from the soft new succulent growth of a woody plant
soil amendment
1.material added to the soil such as organic matter, compost, sand, etc. to increase the soils productivity, 2. to amend the soil
soil structure
1. the natural occurring shapes the soil break into, 2. arrangement of primary soil particles in aggregates ( peds )of different shapes
solitary
occuring single, not clustered or paired
somatotropic
promoting growth
sori
plural form of sorus
sororia
sisterly
sorus
1. the spore producing organs on the frond of a fern, 2. Example: Break Fern (Pteris cretica), Birds Nest Fern (Asplenium nidus)
sowing
a traditional term used to describe planting seeds
sp
1. abbreviation for species, 2. spp (pl)
spadix
fleshing flower-spike, usually partially enclosed by a spathe
spathe
leaf or bract, green or colored, enclosing or partially surrounding a flower or flower cluster
spatulate
1. widened at the top like a spatula, 2. spoon or paddle shaped
spear shaped
lanceolate shaped leaves
speciation
1. the process of a wild population becoming a new distinct species, 2. The evolutionary formation of new biological species
species
1. a group of organisms that look alike and are capable of reproducing fertile offspring in nature, 2. the seventh and most specific step in the classification system of living organisms
species plants
plants found growing in the wild
speciosa
1. showy, 2. Example: Showy Goldenrod (Solidago speciosa), Aztex Gold Sanvitalia (Sanvitalia speciosa), Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa )
spermatophyte
a seed producing plant
sphagnum moss
1. dehydrated remains of plants in the Sphagnum genus, collected from floating plants in boggy sites, acid ph, absorbs 20-30 times it's weight in water, contains a specific fungistatic that prevents some fungus disease problems, used for air layering, seed germination and decoration
sphagnum soup
pulverized sphagnum moss kept saturated with water and used to germinate some seeds
spicate(a)
1. spiked, 2: flowers that occur in spikes, 3. Examples: Red Fox (Veronica spicata),
spicifer(-a,-um)
spike bearing
spiciformis(-is,-e)
spike shaped
spicula
with spikes
spidermite
An extremely small insect (1/50th of an inch) that spends most of their time on the lower surface of the leaf. As the numbers increase they will form fine webs on and between the leaves. The webs and chlorotic, stippled appearance on the leaves are signs the plant is infected.
1. elongated, unbranched flower inflorescence with sessile flowers, 2. Eamples of plants with spike flowers:Liatris (Liatris spicata Kobold), Lead Plant (Amorpha canescens), Parallel Peperomia (Peperomia puteolata)
spikelet
1. basic unit of a grass inflorescence consisting of many flowers subtended by 2 bracts (glumes), 2. a small spike, 3. Example: Wild Oats (2)(Chasmanthium latifolium)
Spike moss
1. common name for Selaginella, 2. name derived from the spike-like reproductive structures
spine
1. modified leaf, 2. a spine on a cactus
spinescent
1. bearing spines, 2. bearing a spine or spine like point at the apex or tip
spiniferous
spinose
spinose(-a)
1. bearing spines, 2. Example: Spider Plant (Cleome spinosa )
spinosissima
1. having many spines, 2. Example: Mammilaria spinosissima
spinous
spinose
spinule
small spine
spinulose
having spinules
spiny
with spines
spirally arranged
the actual pattern of alternate leaves
sprouting
seeds germinating
spongy
porus
sporangiophore
a stalk bearing sporangia
sporangium
1. structure where the spores are found, 2. a case or container for spores
spore
1. the seed-like reproductive structure of ferns, mosses. fungi, lycopodium, equisetum etc. 2. a reproductive cell that grows directly into a new plant
spore print
a print of the mushrooms spores made by placing the cap on a piece of paper
sporocarp
specialized body within which sporangia are bore
sporophyll
a leaf or leaf-like structure that bears sporangia
sporophyte
the diploid (2n) spore producing stage of an organism that exhibits alternation of generation
sport
1. a mutation, 2. an unusual change the growth, color, leaf shape of a plant
sporule
a small spore
sorus (-i pl)
1. the spore encasing structure of Ferns, Club Moss, etc., Examples: Table Fern (Pteris cretica)
sour
a term often used to describe a substance that is acid
spray
1. a group of blooms on a single stem, 2. a branchlet with foliage
spreader
a chemical used to disperse pesticides uniformly over the surfaces and help it stick to the plant
spreader sticker
spreader
spreading
growing horizontally or outward
spring wood
1. the light concentric rings of a tree trunk, 2. light colored, thin walled xylem cells that are formed during the active part of the growing season, 3. inner part of an annual ring
spur
1. a short shoot bearing leaves or flowers, 2. Examples: Ginkgo (2) (Ginkgo biloba)
spur
1. a hollow appendage of the corolla or calyx and may contain nectar, 2. Examples: White Bleeding Heart (Dicentra spectabilis alba) ,
spurred
bearing spurs
squama
a scale
squamaceous
squamate
squamate
covered with scales
squamata(-a, um)
1. with small scalelike leaves or branches, 2. Example: Blue Star Juniper(Juniperus squamata), Loderi Juniper (Juniperus squamata)
squamella
a small scale of squama
squamellate
has squamellae
squamiform
scale-like
squamose
squamate
squamule
scales found on the lodicule of a grass flower
squamulose
with very small or minute squamellae
squarrose
1. with a spreading or divergent process, 2. rough or scruffy due to recurved or spreading processes
squarrulose
having minute recurved processes
stagnalis
growing in still water
stake
a pieces of plastic, wood, steel, etc. used to support a plant
stalk
1. the stem of a leaf or flower, 2. the supporting structure of a leaf, flower or fruit, 3. the main stem of a herbaceous plant
stalked bud
a bud whose outer scales are attached above the base of the bud axis
stalkless
a leaf, flower, etc that is lacking a stalk
stamen
1. male part of the flower consisting of the anther and the filament, 2. pollen bearing organ, 3. Example: Red Tassel Flower (Calliandra tweedii )
staminal
pertaining to the stamens
staminate flower
1. a flower lacking a pistil, 2. male flower. 3. Example:Rhizmatous Begonia (Begonia rhizomatous )
standard
1. the upright growing petals of an Iris, 2. upper most petals of a papilionaceous flower,
standard
a plant that is trained to a single stem
standard pot
a flower pot in which the height is 3/4 the width
star shaped
1. in the shape of a star, 2. Example:Blood Root (Sanguinaria canadensis)
stellate
star-like
stellate hairs
1. star-like hairs arising from epidermal cells and having 3-5 long rays, 2. found on English Ivy
stem
1. the main axis of plant above the ground, 2. the primary axis of a plant supporting the leaves and flowers, 3. a vascular growing axis of a plant with buds and growing nodes
stem cuttings
A form of vegetative propagation in which pieces of a plants stem are induced to form roots and a new plant.
stem leaves
leaves that grow from the stem of a plant
stem tendril
1. a tendril developing from the stem apical meristem, 2. shoot tendril
stem tuber
a swollen tip of a rhizome, such as a Irish Potato, Cannas Lily tubers, etc.
stemless
flower and leaf stalks that originate directly from the crown of a plant
stepables
a term used to describe plants that can be walked on
sterigma
the raised base from which evergreen leaves fall from, found on Spruce (Picea)
sterile
1. not producing fruit, seeds, pollen or spores, 2. barren
sterile flowers
1. flowers incapable of producing seeds, 2. Examples: Variegated Lacecap Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla Variegated), Climbing Hydrangea (Hydrangea anomala subsp petiolaris), Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var tomemtosa),Cranberry Bush Viburnum (Viburnum trilobum)
sterile frond
The vegetative non-spore producing frond (leaf) of ferns. Usually they are distinctly different from the fertile frond.,2. Example:Staghorn Fern (Platycerium)
stick
a traditional term often used to describe inserting cuttings into growing media
stigma
the top of the female part of the flower
stigmatic
1. belonging to or part of the stigma, 2. Having the characteristics of a stigma
stigmatic column
1. the column formed with the stigmas of the flower, 2. Example:Oyama Magnolia (Magnolia sieboldi)
stigmatiferous
having a stigma
Stinkhorn fungus
A group of fungus that emit sweet to fetid odors which attract insects to carry away their spores. Frequently the spores are in a sticky substance.
stilt root
a prop root
stipe
1. the stalk of a mushroom, seaweed or other stationary organisms, 2. the leaf stalk (petiole) of ferns
stipe
the stalk attaching the ovary to the receptacle in some flowers
stipel
1. a stipule of a leaflet, 2. a minute stipule
stipellate
having stipules at the base of the leaflets
stipular
having stipels
stipulate
stipular
stipule
1. outgrowth from the base of a leaf stalk (petiole), usually found in pairs, 2. Types: adenate stipules, simple stipules and leafy stipules
stipule scar
a pair of scars (marks) left on the stem after the stipules fall off
stock
basal or rooted part of a grafted plant
stock
the stem or trunk of a tree
stock block
a group of plants grown for propagation
stock plants
plants grown for propagation
stolon
1. an above ground horizontal stem, may form roots at the apex or at nodes, 2. a runner, 3. the tips of some stolons will touch the soil, root and than form another stolon from the new plant, 4. an above ground spreading stem , 4. Examples: Strawberry Begonia (Saxifraga stolonifera )
stoloniferous
1. having many slender stems that run just above or just below the ground, 2. having many stolons
stoma
the breathing or water poor in stems or leaves
stomata
stoma
stomatiferous
having stomata
stone
hard protective woody case surrounding a seed in drupes, usually one seeded
stool
1. a clump of basal shoots, 2. a stump or an old root from which new shoots will grow, often used in Chrysanthemum propagation
stooling
cutting down to the ground level to induce new growth
stool layering
1. A form of layering that involves cutting the plant to the ground during the dormant period and than covering with soil. The new shoots will root and can be removed from the mother plant by division., 2. same as mound layering
stramineous
straw-colored
straplike
1. long and wide with parallel veins shaped like a strap, 2. Examples of plants with strap-like leaves: Pony Tail Palm (Beaucarnea recurvata), Daylily (Hemerocallis), Spider Plant (Chlorophytum comosum vittatum)
stratify
stratification
stratify
1. form layers or strata
stratification
the process of subjecting seeds to extended periods of cold moist conditions to help break the dormancy of the seed
stratified
form layers or strata
striate
fine lines, almost parallel
strictous(-a,-um)
1. erect or upright, 2. Example Yellow Sorrel (Oxalis stricta)
strigose
when the surface of a leaf or other areas has sharp, straight appressed hairs
strike
a traditional term to produce roots such as from a cutting
strip
to remove unwanted leaves
strobilaceous
1. cone-like, 2. pertaining to a cone
strobile
1. a cone or an inflorescence resembling a cone, 2 Examples: Ironwood (Ostrya virginiana)
strobilus (pl. strobili)
1. cone-like structure, 2. a scaly spike of a female flower, 3. an aggregate of sporophylls on a common axis
stylar
having a style
style
1. the slender stalk of the pistil , 2. the area between the stigma and the ovary, 3. an extention of the ovary bearing a stigma at the it's apex
style arms
small stiff segments in a flowers center shielding the base of the falls that holds the reproductive organ
stylopodium
a disc-like enlargement at the base of the style
styrene
small pieces of styrofoam used as a drainage component in growing mixes
suaveolens
1. sweet scented, 2. Examples: Sweet Scented Tobacco (Nicotiana suaveolans)
suavis (is, -e)
sweet
sub
latin prefix meaning under, almost, not quite
subcontinuous pith
pith with occasional gaps
suber
cork as in the bark of a Cork Oak (Quercus suber)
suberose
1. cork-like, 2. corky texture
submerged bud
bud hidden by the petiole or embedded in the callus of the leaf scar
subopposite
1.adjacent leaves of some alternate leaved plants tend to become paired or staggered, 2. Example: Common Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica)
subpetiolar
under the base of the petiole
subshrub
1. a suffrutescent (somewhat woody) perennial plant, 2. a small shrub, 3. Example:Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
substance
1. pertaining to thickness of petals, fullness of plant, 2. A plant may be judged by its substance
subtend
1. to be below and close to, 2. Example: Henbit (2) (Lamium amplexicaule)
subterranean
below the surface of the soil
subterranean roots
roots growing below the surface such as fibrous roots, tap roots and fascicle root or clustered roots (often called tuberous roots)
subterranean stems
underground stems such as tubers, rhizomes, bulbs and corms
subtropical
semi-tropical
subula
a fine sharp point
subulate
awl-shaped
succulent
leaves, stems, ect., of plants that are juicy and fleshy
succulent leaves
1. thick fleshy leaves, 2. Examples: Living Rock Plant (Pleiospilos bolusii), String of Beads (Senecio rowleyanus ), Haworthia (Haworthia)
succulent plant
1. A group of plants loosly held together because of their succulent leaves, stems, etc. and maybe but not always found in dry regions. Succulent plants is not a taxonomical term such as Cactus which are plants in the Cactacea family. 2. Examples: ), Jade (Crassula argentea), Madagascar Palm (Pachypodium lameiri), Pony Tail Palm (Beaucarnea recurvata)
succulent stems
1. thick fleshy stems, 2. Examples: African Milk Tree (Euphorbia trigona), Aloe vera (Aloe vera), Euphorbia (Euphorbia), Baseball Cactus (Euphorbia obesa),
sucker
upright shoot developing from a horizontal root
sucker
adhering discs of a vine
suffrutescent
a somewhat shrubby plant whose stems are woody at the base but herbaceous above and usually dies back to the woody portion at the end of the growing season
suffruticose
somewhat woody
suffruticulose
suffruticose
suffused
tinged
sulcate
having long longitudinal furrows or grooves, 2. deeply grooved lengthwise
sulcus
a furrow or a groove
sulfureous
having the color of sulfur (sulfur yellow)
summerwood
1. the dark concentric rings of a tree trunk, 2. dark thick walled xylem cells that are formed during the less active part of the growing season, 3. outer part of an annual ring
sun scald
the burning of tissue from strong light
superficial
on the surface and not connected to the inner tissue
superior
1. attached above, 2. inferior (opp)
superior ovary
1. when the ovary is above the point of attachment of the other floral organs, 2. inferior ovary (opp)
superposed bud
extra buds (accessory) that appear above the true axillary buds
supine
lying flat facing upwards
suture
1. a line of fussion, 2. the line of dehiscence of a fruit or anther
sweet
a term often used to describe a substance that is basic
sweet soils
alkaline soils
syconium
1. The fruit of a fig, 2. A roundish, ripened inflorescence, hollow fruit with an inverted receptacle bearing many flowers and are usually pollinated by a specific fig wasp, 3. Example: Benjamin Fig (Ficus benjamina)
sylvestris
1. of the woods, 2. woodland species, 3. Example: Watereri Scotts Pine ( Pinus sylvestris)
sylvicola
an inhabitant of the woods
syliculture
1. the care and culture of forest trees, 2. forestry
sym
from Greek "sympages" meaning together
symbiosis
an intimate association between two dissimilar organisms in which both organisms need each other to survive
sympetalous
petals unite at least one place
symphoricarpus
1. berries are borne in clusters
syn
Greek for together, with, united
synandrium
a mass of united stamen
synangium
a cluster of united sporangia
syncarp
1. a fleshy aggregate fruit, 2. A compound fruit formed from two or more carpels, 3. Examples: Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera)
syncarpous
1. having a gynoecium with all the carpels united, 2. having fused carpels
synconium
1. the fruit of a fig, 2. Example: Benjamin Fig (Ficus benjamina)
synecious
synoecious
syngenesious
stamens connate by their anthers in a cylinder about the style
synoecious
1. having female and male flowers on the same flower head,
synonym
1. a name of a plant that has been replaced, 2. a name of a plant that is common but misused, 3. Example: Cushion Spurge is called Euphorbia polychroma or Euphorbia epithimoides
synsepalous
having united sepals
systemic
an insecticide that is absorbed into the plant and kills insects (pests) that are sap sucking
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T

tailed
1. anthers having caudal appendages, 2. with tail-like appendages
tapering
gradually decreasing toward an end
 
taproot
1. a root system with one main root from which smaller branch roots originate, 2. Examples: Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Curly Dock (Rumex crispa)
tardiflora
1. late flowering, 2. Example:Hosta tardiflora
tardifolia
1. late flowering, 2. Example Late Leaf Oak (Quercus tardiolia)
tassel
1. the male part of the corn plant, 2. the staminate inflorescence of a corn plant
tawny
tan in color
taxa
any unit of plant classification
taxon
any unit of plant classification
taxonomy
the science of classification
TC
an abbreviation for tissue cultured
tectora
1. growing on roofs, 2. Example: Hens and Chicks (Sempervivum tectorum)
tectum
the outer most layer of a pollen grain
teepee
a structure made of three or more stakes used to support growing vines
teeth
1. tooth
temperate
regions of the world lying between the tropic of Cancer and the Artic Circle or the tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle
temperate zone
temperate
tender perennial
A perennial that will not over winter in one climate but will in warmer ones. Commonly used in colder hardiness zones as annuals.
tendril
1. a modified stem or leaf, 2. slender twining, coiling structure used to help support climbing plants
tendril-pinnate
pinnately compound but ending in a tendril
tenui
slender or thin
tepal
1. a sepal or a petal, 2. part of an undifferentiated perianth, 3. when the sepals or petals are indistinguishable, 3. Example:Magnolia Gold Star (Magnolia acuminata subsp. subcordata), Oyama Magnolia (Magnolia sieboldi), Magnolia Stellata (Magnolia stellata)
terra cotta
1. brownish-orange color, 2. earthenware used to make pots
terrarium
1. an enclosed structure, usually glass used to grow plants in, they hit there peak of use in the 1970's, 2. Wardian Case
terete
cylindrical or usually cylindrical in cross section
terminal
1. at the end of a stem or branch, 2. apex of a stem or branch
terminal bud
bud found at the tip or apex of a branch
terminal bud scar
1.a scar or ring from the terminal bud's scales, 2, the distance between two terminal buds is one seasons growth
terminal cluster
1. found in a cluster at the terminal end of a stem, petiole, etc. 2. Example: Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
terminal corymb
1. a simple corymb located at the terminal end of a peduncle, 2. Example:Tassel Flower (Emilia javanica )
terminal dominance
apical dominance
ternate
1. grouped in three, 2. having three leaflets, 3. divided into three
tessellate
1. having a mosaic or chequered pattern on leaves or petals, 2. having a marbled appearance
testa
1. seed coat, 2. hard shell
testaceous
brick red or brownish-red color
testiculate
double tubers of some Orchids that look like testicles
tetra
prefix meaning four
tetracyclic
four whorls
tetrad
a group of four
tetradinous
occurring in tetrads
tetradymous
having four cells
tetradynamous
having four long and 4 short stamens
tetraploid
1. a plant with twice the number of chromosomes. Many different Daylily (1), (2), (3) (Hemerocallis) have been made into tetraploid's
texture
1. the effect of the surface of a structure, 2. the feel of the surface
thalloid
forms a thallus
thallus (pl. thalli)
a multicellular plant body that is usually flat and not organized into roots, stems or leaves
thicket
1. a dense growth of shrubs 2. an area of dense undergrowth, 3. an overgrown area of scrubland that has revert back to the wild
thigmotropism
1. a growth response (tropism) of a plant organ to touch or physical contact, 2. turgotropism, 3. Examples: wrapping of tendrils, closing of leaves on a venus Fly Trap, etc
thong root
one of several thick roots ascending from the crown
thorn
1. a modified stem, 2. modified branch that grew from an axillary bud
throat
the tubular opening in the calyx or perianth
thrum
a hetrostylic flower with fairly short styles and long stamens
thrum-eyed
in Primulas a flower in which the stamens are visible in the throat of the flower usually hiding the pin or stigma
thumb pot
a small clay pot measuring about 2 1/2 by 2 1/2 inches
thyrse
1. a compact panicle-like inflorescence whose main axis is indeterminate (racemose) and the lateral branches are determinate (cymose), 2. Example: Japanese Tree Lilac (Syringia reticulata), Miss Kim Lilac (Syringia patula Miss Kim), Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)
thyrsus
thyrse
tip
apex
tip cutting
a cutting taken from the tip of plant including its terminal growth bud
tip layering
1. when the tip of the plant is held to the surface of the growing media to form roots, common in black berries., 2. a form of layering
tissue
a group of cells with a common structure and function
tomentose
1. cottony, matted, densely wooly, 2. pubescence or short fine hairs, 3. Examples:Velvet Leaf Plant (Kalanchoe tomentosa ), Purple Passion Plant (Gynura tomentosa ),Common Mullein (Verbascum thapusu)
tomentulose
having a degree of tomentose
tooth (pl teeth)
1. a marginal lobe of a leaf or a petal, 2. margin of a leaf broken into smaller segments (serrations),
toothed
1. having teeth or serrations, 2. surface broken into segments, 3. Example: Korean Mountain Ash (Sorbus alnifolia)
top dressing
1. to spread a thin layer over the top of the soil or growing media, 2. as in top dressing a potted plant with fertilizer, the fertilizer is sprinkled on the top of the growing media
top working
grafting only the ends of the plant leaving the branches intact
topiary
the method of shaping, trees, shrubs and other plant material into desired shapes or forms
topography
the lay of the land
topping
to remove or pinch out the top of a plant
torsion
twisting
torulose
1. twisted or knobby, 2. irregularly swollen at close intervals
trailing
1. used to describe a plant that has long stems that hang down or sweep along the ground, often rooting as they go, 2. prostrate
translocated
Species that are native to North America (or other large areas) whose pre-settlement range did not include the area to which this plant was translocated to.
translocation
movement of water and nutrients through the plants vessels
translucent
1. partially transparent, allowing light to pass through, but only diffused, many times referring to areas in leaves, 2. fenestrate, 3. Example:Flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum )
transparent
allowing light to pass through with little or no distortion
transpiration
the loss of water from a plant
transplanted
1. non-native plants moved into an area, 2. same as translocated
transplanted
plants lifted from the ground and replanted
transverse ridge
a ridge that runs across the stem from one leaf scar to its pair on t he opposite side of the twig
tree
1. a large woody perennial plant, 2. may or may not be single stemmed
tree rings
same as annual rings
trench layering
A method of layering where the a branch of or a growing plant in laid horizontal in a trench and buried. New shoots will be produced and can be removed to propagate the plant.
trenching
digging a shallow ditch around the border of a planting
tri
a prefix meaning 3
triachaenium
a fruit made of three achenes
triad
a group of three
triadelphous
stamens arranged into three groups
triandrous
having three stamens
triangulate
three angels
triaristate
three-awned
tricamarous
having three locules
tricarinate
having three ridges or keels
tricarpellary
having three carpels
tricolor
1.a part of a plant has more than two colors, often referring to the foliage, 2. Examples: Tri Colored Sage (Salvia officinalis Tricolor), Tricolor Beech (Fagus sylvatica Tricolor)
tricomes
a bristle or hair
trifoliate
1. having three leaves or three leaflets, 2. Examples: Grape Ivy Ellen Danica (2)(Cissus rhombifolia), Red Clover (Trifolium pratense), White Triliium (Trillium grandiflorum ), Beggers Tick (Bidens frondosa)
trilobed
1.of leaves having three lobes, 2. Examples: Compact European Cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus compactum), Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)
trilobed petals
1. petals divided into three lobes, 2. Example:Gaillairdia Burgundy (Gaillardia x grandiflora )
trimerous
1. parts arranged in sets or multiples of three
trimonoceous
a plant with male, female and bisexual flowers on the same plant
trimorphic
with three forms
trinervate
trinerved
trinerved
a leaf with three nerves arising from or near the base of the leaf
tripetalous
1. with three petals, 2. Example: White trillium (Trillium grandiflorum)
triphyllous
1. with three leaves, 2. Example: Red Trillium (Trillium erecta )
tripinnate
a bipinnate leaf with leaflets further divided pinnately
tripinnatifid
thrice pinnately cleft
tropical
the region of the world lying between the tropic of Capricorn and the tropic of Cancer
tropism
a growth movement whose direction is determined from which direction the stimulus strikes the plant
truncate
1. when the apex or base of a leaf is cut straight or squared off, 2. Example of truncated apices:Citrina Passion Flower (Passiflora citrina). 3. Examples of truncated bases: Whitespire Birch (Betula platyphylla japonica), Birds Foot English Ivy (Hedera helix)
truss
a cluster of fruit or flowers growing on one stem
tuber
1. an underground modified stem used mainly for storage, 2. swollen terminal portion of a stolon or rhizome, 3. a subterranean stem
tubercle
1. small wart like swelling on Cactus stems formed by the horizontal division of a rib, 2. knob-like bump or outgrowth, 3. Examples: Corncob Euphorbia (Euphorbia mammilaris), Variegated Corncob Euphorbia (Euphorbia mammillaris variegata)
tubernoid
underground, thickened storage organ with stem and root tissues
tuberous
1. resembling a tuber, 2. bearing tubers
tuberous root
1. a subterranean stem, 2. enlarged roots bearing adventitious shoots which in turn form adventitious roots that form into tubers
tubular
in the form of a tube
tubular calyx
1. the calyx forms a tubular sheath around the flower, 2. Example: Angel's Trumpet (Datura metel), Batface Cuphea (Cuphea llavea Batface)
tubular corolla
tubuliflorous
tubular flower
1. a flower having the petals, sepals or both united into a tube, 2. Examples:Fuchsia Gartenmeister (Fuchsia triphylla), Sweet Scented Tobacco (Nicotiana suaveolans), Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), Aloe vera (Aloe vera)
tubular sheath
1. sheaths fused to form a tube enclosing the stem, 2. ochrea
tubuliflorous
1. tubular corollas in the perfect flowers of a head. Found in some members of the Asteracea family
tubulous
having tubular flowers
tufted
1. plants growing in dense clumps or tufts, 2. caespitose, 3. arranged in a dense cluster, 3. Example: Fiber Optic Grass (Scirpus cernuus)
tump
1. to form or forming a mass of earth or a round embankment, 2. a mound, 3. a clump of trees, shrubs or grass
tunic
the dry outer membranous scales on a bulb composed of persistent leaf bases
tunic bulb
a bulb with the outer scales being dry and membranous scales that are continuous forming concentric layers, has annual roots, 2. Examples: onion, Daffodil (Narcissus)
tunicated
with concentric layers, often of fleshy scales
tumid
swollen
turbinate
1. narrow at the base and broad at the top, 2. shaped like the top of a cone
turf
referring to an area of maintained grass
turf
a slab or block of peat dug mainly for fuel
turgid
1. a plant cell that is inflated with water, 2. swollen or bloated
turgidity
having to do with turgid
turgotropsim
A type of thigmotropism caused by the cells of the plant losing turgidity, 2. Examples Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica)
turgor pressure
the pressure developing in a plant cell as it becomes filled with water
tussock
a tuft or hill of grass
twice ternately compound
a ternate compound leaf where the leaflets are further divided
twig
a small shoot or branch
twiner
a plant that supports itself by twining
twining
to grasp by coiling or twinning
twining stems
a stem of a vine that climbs by twinning
type
type species
type species
the specimen or group of nearly identical specimens from which the original description of the species was made
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U

ubiquitous
found in all types of different habitats
umbel
1. flower inflorescence in which the flower stalks originate from one point, 2. can form a flat umbrella like head, 3. common flower form in the Carrot Family, 4. Example: Nodding Onion (Allium cernuum)
umbellate
1.resembling an umbel, 2. arranged in umbels, 3. having umbels
umbellet
a secondary umbel in a compound umbel
umbelliferous
1. a plant having an umbel, 2. a member of the Umbelliferacea family
umbelliform
1. resembling an umbel, 2. many time applied to umbel-like inflorescence that are condensed cymes rather than condensed racemes
umbellule
a partial umbel
umbilicate
having a depression
umbo
a blunt or rounded elevation or protuberance on the end or side of a solid organ, 2. a conical protection arising from a surface
umbonate
provided with an umbo
unarmed
lacking either spines or prickles, though the leaves may have sharp teeth at the margins or tip like holly
undulate
1. edges of the leaf are wavy or crisp, 2.same as repand
unequally serrated
1. teeth or serration are not equal in number length, 2. Example: Korean Mountain Ash (Sorbus alnifolia)
uni
prefix meaning one or singular
unicellular
made up of one cell
unicinate
hooked at the tip
unisex
a flower that is either male (staminate) or female (pistillate).
unisex flower
a flower of only one sex
USDA
United States Department of Agriculture
USNA
United States National Arboretum
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V

valavate
1. scales met along a line without over lapping, 2. imbricate (opp)
valve
1. a part of a dehiscent dry fruit, 2. Example: Sunburst Hypericum (Hypericum frondosum )
variant
a different plant whether it be a horticultural or a botanical plant
varigata
in Iris flowers a bicolor with yellow or near yellow standards and deeper maroon, brown or purple falls
variegated
1. foliage that is usually green has splashes, mottled or margins of other colors such as, white, silver, yellow, reds, etc., 2. Examples:Frosty Morn Sedum(Sedum) Silver and Gold Dogwood (Cornus sericea Silver and Gold), Variegated Rose Scented Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens variegata)
variety
Subdivision of a species having a distinct though often inconspicuous difference, and breeding true to that difference.
vascular
1. plants that have tissue to transport water (xylem tissue ) and dissolved nutrients (phloem tissue) 2, pertaining to conduction, 3. vascular plants have xylem and phloem
vascular bundle
1. a strand of xylem and phloem with the associated connecting tissue, 2. the vein, 3. a discrete group of vascular tissue
vascular bundle scar
the small dots left in the leaf scar from the vascular bundles
vascular cambium
a group of cells that give arise to secondary xylem or phloem, responsible for diameter growth in woody stems , lateral meristem
vascular plants
plants that have vascular tissue (xylem and phloem), have the ability to conduct fluid, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta
vascular rays
1. a narrow band of cells that transverse the stem of a plant, 2. transports waste material from the outer area of the stem to the heartwood
vascular system
in plants the system that transports water and other materials
vascular tissue
tissue in a plant that conducts liquids throughout the plant
varicoloured
1. diversified in color, 2. variegated
variegated
1. having markings or zones of tissue lacking chlorophyl, these zones can be white, red, silver, cream, etc., 2. Examples: Hosta Patriot (Hosta), Hosta Great Expectations (Hosta sieboldiana Great Expectations), Croton (Codiaeum variegatum pictum)
vector
An agent that can transmit a pathogen which could be wind, another animal, water, etc.
vegetable
1. a term used to decribe edible roots, stems or leaves, 2. as opposed to eating the flower or parts of which is a fruit (opp)
vegetative material
material derived from plants
vegetative organs
parts of the plant excluding the flowering parts, roots, stems and leaves.
vegetative propagation
A method of propagation using parts of the plant to reproduce the plant. Plants produced vegetatively are clones of the parent plant. Seed propagation is a sexual propagation method. Methods of vegetative propagation are cuttings, layering, dividing, cloning etc.
vegetative reproduction
same as vegetative propagation
vein
1. a vascular bundle ,2. rib of a leaf
venation
the arrangement of veins on a leaf
ventral
1. pertaining to the upside of a organ such as a leaf, etc., 2. adaxial, 3. opp. dorsal
vermiculite
a component of growing media's made from expanded mica, neutral in ph, high cat ion exchange capacity, high water holding capacity
vernacular name
a common name in a local language
vernal pond
1. a temporay or short lasting pond, 2. ephemeral pond
vernalis
1. blooms or grows in the spring, 2. Example: Vernal Witch Hazel (Hamamelis vernalis)
verrucose
having a wart-like surface
versatile
description of anthers that are able to swing freely
versicolor
1. having various colors, 2. changeable colors, 3. Examples: Epimedium (Epimedium x versicolor sulphureum), Flag Iris (Iris versicolor)
verticil
1. an arrangement of similar parts around a central axis, 2. a whorl
verticillaster
a pair of axillary cymes arising form opposite leaves or bracts and forms a false whorl, 2. Examples: Salvia Purple Rain (2)(Salvia verticillata)
verticillate
1. arranged in verticils, 2. a whorl, 3. forming a ring around an axis 3. Example: Whorled Milkweed (Asclepias verticillata), Coreopsis Moonbeam (Coreopsis verticillata), Salvia Purple Rain (Salvia verticillata), Winterberry Holly (Ilex verticillata)
vesicle
a small bladder-like structure
vespertine
of or pertaing to vesicles
vespertine
opening and or functioning in the evening
vessel
in flowering plants, a tube of xylem tissue formed from a series of vessel elements stacked end to end
vessel element
xylem cells that conduct water
vestige
remains of an exhausted or dead plant structure
vestigial
1. little more than a trace of what is normally present, 2. a reduced organ or structure, 3. rudimentary
vestigial lobe
very small lobe
viable
seeds capable of germinating, sprouting, etc.
villosulous
nearly villous
villose
1. when the surface of a leaf has long and soft shaggy hair, 2. nappy
vine
1. a plant with the stem not self supporting, realling on other plants or structures for support, 2. Examples: Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), Morning Glory (Ipomea tricolor), Citrina Passion Flower(Passiflora citrina)
virescent
becoming green as with plants whose foliage may start as red, yellow, etc.
virgate
wand like, straight, slender and erect, 2. Example: Common Mullein (2) (Verbascum thapusu)
virgatus (a,um)
twiggy looking or wand like
virginiana
1. from the southwestern United States, 2. from Virginia, 3. Examples: American Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana)
virid (-is, -i)
1. green, 2. Example: Winter Green Hawthorn (Crataegus viridis)
viridiflorus(-a)
1. having green flowers, 2. Example: Viridiflora Tulips (Tulipa Viridiflora)
viridescens
becoming green
viridifolius
having green leaves
viridifuscus
green-brown
viridissimus
very green
viridulus
somewhat green
virulence
being virulent
virulent
1. a pathogen that has the ability to cause a disease
virus
a sub-cellular organism that can cause problems to plants, considered to be non-living
virus indexing
a test procedure for plant stock to see if they are free of viruses
viscaria
sticky
viscid(-a,-m)
1. covered with a sticky secretion, 2. similar to glutinous
vista
A view usually framed by trees, shrubs, etc. Vistas are intentionally created by landscape designers to draw the eye to a certain place.
vitaceus (-a,-um)
vine-like
viticulture
cultivation of vines
vitta
1. a resin canal, 2. an oil cavity
vittata
1. striped lengthwise, 2. Example: Variegated Inch Plant (Tradescantia albiflora albo-vittata)
viviparous
1. germinating while still attached to the parent plant, this could be a seedling or a plantlet, 2. vivipary, 3. Example: Mother of a Thousand (Bryophyllum daigremontiana ), Piggy Back Plant (Tolmiea menziesii )
vivipary
Premature germination of a seed in or on the parent plant. The seeds of a Mangrove tree will develop into a small on the parent before they are shed.
vix
scarcely
voluable
twining
volunteer
A plant that has grown from a self-sown seed.
vulgaris (-e)
1. common, 2. Example: Common Purple Lilac (Syringa vularis), Pasque Flower (Pulsatilla vulgaris), search for more uses of vularis
vulgo
commonly
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W

wall garden
a garden against a man made structure to protect plants
Wardian Case
the original terrarium created by Nathaniel Wardian in 1829
water-logged(waterlogged)
said of soil that is oversaturation with water and could be poorly drained
water sprout
thin straight branches growing approximately at a 90 degree angle from a branch
watermelon snow
A phenomenon that occurs when a unicellular form of green algae will stain snow red.
wavy
1. the edges of the leaves undulate, crisp, Example: Vernal Witch Hazel (Hamamelis vernalis), Osaka Birds Nest Fern (Asplenium antiguum Osaka)
wedge-shaped
1. shaped like a wedge, 2. narrow and tapering to a sharp point
weed
1. a plant growing out of place, 2. a plant not valued for its beauty or use, 3. an aggressive plant suppressing the growth of other plants
weeping
a plant with a pendulous habit
wet wood
1. a bacterial disease causing foul-smelling and unsightly seepage of sap from the trunk of a woody plant trunk, 2. slime flux
wettable powder
a dry powdered form of a chemical
whip
1. a young tree consisting of a single leader with little or no side branches, 2. a long thin branch
whorl
1. a circle of three or more leaves or flowers at one node at the same level, 2. Examples: Bedstraw (Galium aparine), Turk's Cap Lily (Lilium superbum)
whorled
1. arranged around a central point, 2. whorl
wicker
a small flexible twig or osier
wicket
a small gate
wigwam
a pyramidal arrangement of sticks or poles to form a support structure of climbing plants
wild type
1. nature form of a species plant, 2. the species found in the wild
willow water
1. a solution from Willows(Salix (1)) said to aid in rooting cuttings and in reliving pain. Made by soaking willow twigs in water. In the fifth century B.C., the Greek physician, Hippocrates, wrote that chewing bark of a willow tree could relieve pain and fever.
wilt
1. to droop, 2. loss of turgor pressure (plasmolysis)
wilt
any of a number of diseases that cause a plant to wilt and usually die
wilting
1. to wilt, 2. when the rate of transpiration is greater than the rate of absorption the plant loses turgor pressure and wilts
wind break
a structure or a hedge of plants used to lessen the force of the wind
wind pollination
1. plants that are pollinated by the wind, 2. plants in the grass family are wind pollinated, 3. these flowers usually lack scent, nectar and attractive petals
wind rock
winter winds causing damage to plants by loosening the roots
wing
1. dry, thin membranous appendage, 2. one of the lateral petals of a papilionaceous flower
winged petiole
1. a petiole with a leaf-like or membrane-like extention along its length, 2. Example: Black-eyed Susan Vine (Thunbergia alata), Grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi)
winged rachis
1. compound leaf stem with a membrane like extention on both sides of the rachis, 2. Example: Winged Sumac (Rhus copallinum)
winter annual
1.a plant whose seeds germinate in the late summer or fall and then finish their life cycle next year and die, 2. Example: Common Chickweed (Stellaria media )
winter bud
a hibernating vegetative shoot
witch's broom
1. abnormal growth of stems on woody plants, usually caused by a fungus, 2. a tuft of underdeveloped branches on woody plants
Whisk Fern
common name given to plants in the division Psilotophyta
wood
the hard supporting tissue of trees and shrubs, composed of xylem and associated structures
woody
1. a term that is used to describe herbaceous plants that have taken on the characteristics of a woody plant, they develop wood-like stems,
woody
plants with stems consisting of wood tissue
wool(-ly)
1. long soft matted hair, 2. pubescent
wort
simply means plant or herb
wounding
to propagated plants by cuttings and deliberately cutting or nicking the plants stem to help increase root formation
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X

x
indicates a hybrid
xanth
prefix meaning yellow
xanthophyll
a yellow or brown pigment in plants
xenogamy
cross fertilization
xenograft
a graft from a member of a different species
xero(-ic)
greek prefix, meaning dry
xeromorphic
1.having the form or appearance of a xerophyte, 2. plants with thick cuticles, moisture loss preventing hairs that help them survive dry conditions
xerophilous
1. preferring dryness, 2. plants that are characteristic of, tolerant of, or thriving in the presence of dry climates
xerophyte
plants that are adapted to living in dry conditions
xeroscaping
landscaping using plants adapted to dry conditions
xylem
1. vascular tissue through which water is carried through out the plant, 2. wood of woody plants
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Y

yarda
1. a peaty bog, 2. clayey of sandy peat
yarfa
yarda
yearling
a one-year-old seedling and/or plantlet
yeast
1. a unicellular fungus that converts sugars into alcohol by the process of fermentation, 2. member of the Fungi class ascomycetes
yellows
a plant disease characterized by yellowing and stunting of the host plant
yield appraisal
vegetational analysis
yield trial
a nursery or experimental design in order to determine the yield capacity of a crop
 
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Z

zaleucus (-a,-um)
very white
zea
corn, maize, Indian Corn
zebra
any plant having stripes reminiscent of a Zebra
zebrinia
1. stripes on the leaves, 2. Examples: Zebra Grass( Miscanthus sinensis Zebrinus)
zebrinus (-a,-um)
zebra-striped
zonal
1. markings on the leaf, usually circular in pattern, 2. zonal geraniums
zonate
zonal
zone
an area that differs considerably from adjacent areas
zones of hardiness
a map designating areas of comparable temperatures and growing conditions with which the cultural requirements of various plants may be correlated
zoning
zonal
zoophyte
a plant that resembles an animal
zoophilous
pollinated by animals
zygomorphic
1. an irregular flower, 2. a flower that can not be bisected by only one plane into similar pieces, 3. actinomorphic(opposite), 4. Example: Christmas Cactus (Schlumbergera bridgessi )
zygomycota
1. a division in the kingdom Fungi, 2. Black Bread Mold,, Dung Fungus, etc., 3. an antiquated common name for this group was algae-like fungus
zygote
1. fertilized female gamete, 2. results from the union of the male and female gamete
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count check 02.23.05, spell check a-e 03.26.05